Synonyme von architecture: Architectural features
abacusthe flat upper part of the capital of a column acanthusa carved ornament based on the leaves of the acanthus plant, esp as used on the capital of a Corinthian column accoladea curved ornamental moulding, esp one having the shape of an ogee arch acrotera plinth bearing a statue, etc, at either end or at the apex of a pediment aislea passageway separating seating areas in a theatre, church, etc; a lateral division in a church flanking the nave or chancel ambulatoryan aisle running around the east end of a church, esp one that passes behind the sanctuary amphiprostyle(esp of a classical temple) having a set of columns at both ends but not at the sidesamphistylar(esp of a classical temple) having a set of columns at both ends or at both sidesancon or anconea projecting bracket or console supporting a cornice annuleta moulding in the form of a ring, as at the top of a column adjoining the capital antaa pilaster attached to the end of a side wall or sometimes to the side of a doorwayantefixa carved ornament at the eaves of a roof to hide the joint between the tiles anthemiona floral design, used esp in ancient Greek and Roman architecture and decoration, usually consisting of honeysuckle, lotus, or palmette leaf motifs apophyge or hypophygethe outward curve at each end of the shaft of a column, adjoining the base or capital apse or apsisa domed or vaulted semicircular or polygonal recess, esp at the east end of a churchapteral(esp of a classical temple) not having columns at the sidesarcadea set of arches and their supporting columns arcaturea small-scale arcade archa structure in the form of an arch that serves as a gateway architravethe lowest part of an entablature that bears on the columns archivolta moulding around an arch, sometimes decorated arcuationthe use of arches or vaults in buildings arrisa sharp edge at the meeting of two surfaces at an angle with one another, as at two adjacent sides of a stone blockastragala small convex moulding, usually with a semicircular cross section atlas (plural atlantes) or telamona column in the form of a male figure, used to support an entablature atriuma court in front of an early Christian or medieval church, esp one flanked by colonnades attica storey or low wall above the cornice of a classical façade baguette or bagueta small moulding having a semicircular cross section balconya platform projecting from the wall of a building with a balustrade or railing along its outer edge, often with access from a door or window baldachina canopy of fabric or stone over an altar, shrine, or throne in a Christian church or carried in Christian religious processions over an object of veneration balka timber tie beam of a roof ballflowera carved ornament in the form of a ball enclosed by the three petals of a circular flowerbalusterany of a set of posts supporting a rail or copingbanda strip of flat panelling, such as a fascia or plinth, usually attached to a wall banderole, banderol, or bannerola ribbon-like scroll or sculptured band bearing an inscription, found esp in Renaissance architecture barge coupleeither of a pair of outside rafters along the gable end of a roof barge coursethe overhang of the gable end of a roof barrel vault, tunnel vault, or wagon vaulta vault in the form of a half cylinder basethe lower part of a column or pier basementa partly or wholly underground storey of a building, esp the one immediately below the main floorbay windowa window projecting from the wall of a building and forming an alcove of a room beada small convex moulding having a semicircular cross section beakthe upper surface of a cornice, which slopes out to throw off water bed mouldinga moulding in an entablature between the corona and the frieze belfrythe part of a tower or steeple in which bells are hung bezant, bezzant, or byzantan ornament in the form of a flat discbilleta carved ornament in a moulding, with short cylinders or blocks evenly spaced bindera tie, beam, or girder, used to support floor joists; a stone for binding masonrybolection or bilectiona stepped moulding covering and projecting beyond the joint between two members having surfaces at different levels bottom housethe open space beneath a house built upon high pillars bowpart of a building curved in the form of a bow bow windowa bay window in the shape of a curve bracket a support projecting from the side of a wall or other structurebrattishingdecorative work along the coping or on the cornice of a building breasta projection from the side of a wall, esp that formed by a chimney broacha roof covering the corner triangle on the top of a square tower having an octagonal spire buttressa construction, usually of brick or stone, built to support a wallcaisson, coffer, or lacunaan ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling, dome, etc calottea concavity in the form of a niche or cup, serving to reduce the apparent height of an alcove or chapel canopya rooflike covering over an altar, niche, etc cantilevera beam, girder, or structural framework that is fixed at one end and is free at the othercapital, chapiter, or capthe upper part of a column or pier that supports the entablature cartouchethe paper case holding combustible materials in certain fireworks caryatida column, used to support an entablature, in the form of a draped female figure casementa window frame that is hinged on one side; a window containing frames hinged at the side or at the top or bottom Catherine wheela circular window having ribs radiating from the centre cavettoa concave moulding, shaped to a quarter circle in cross section ceilingthe inner upper surface of a room cella or naoscellarthe inner room of a classical temple, esp the room housing the statue of a deitychannela groove or flute, as in the shaft of a column chapleta narrow convex moulding in the form of a string of beads; astragal cheeka side of a door jamb chevron or dancettean ornamental moulding having a zigzag pattern choirthe part of a cathedral, abbey, or church in front of the altar, lined on both sides with benches, and used by the choir and clergychoir lofta gallery in a cathedral, abbey, or church used by the choir cinquefoilan ornamental carving in the form of five arcs arranged in a circle and separated by cusps clerestorya row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a church that divides the nave from the aisle, set above the aisle roof cloistera covered walk, usually around a quadrangle in a religious institution, having an open arcade or colonnade on the inside and a wall on the outside colonnadea set of evenly-spaced columns columbariuma vault having niches for funeral urns columnan upright post or pillar usually having a cylindrical shaft, a base, and a capital columniationthe arrangement of architectural columns compass windowa bay window having a semicircular shape concha or conchthe half dome of an apse congéa concave moulding corbeil or corbeillea carved ornament in the form of a basket of fruit, flowers, etccorbel or trussa bracket, usually of stone or brick corbie gablea gable having corbie-steps corbie-step, corbel step, or crow stepany of a set of steps on the top of a gable cordon, string course, belt course, or tablean ornamental projecting band or continuous moulding along a wall cornicethe top projecting mouldings of an entablature coronathe flat vertical face of a cornice just above the soffit cove or covinga concave curved surface between the wall and ceiling of a room crenel or crenelleany of a set of openings formed in the top of a wall or parapet and having slanting sides, as in a battlement crestingan ornamental ridge along the top of a roof, wall, etc crocket or crocheta carved ornament in the form of a curled leaf or cusp, used in Gothic architecture crossingthe intersection of the nave and transept in a church crownthe highest part of an arch or vault cullisa gutter in or at the eaves of a roofcupolaa roof or ceiling in the form of a dome curb roofa roof having two or more slopes on each side of the ridge curtail stepthe step or steps at the foot of a flight of stairs, widened at one or both ends and terminated with a scrollcurtain walla non-load-bearing external wall attached to a framed structure, often one that is prefabricated; a low wall outside the outer wall of a castle, serving as a first line of defencecushiona capital, used in Byzantine, Romanesque, and Norman architecture, in the form of a bowl with a square top cuspa carving at the meeting place of two arcscuspidationdecoration using cusps cymaeither of two mouldings having a double curve, part concave and part convex. Cyma recta has the convex part nearer the wall and cyma reversa has the concave part nearer the wall cymatiumthe top moulding of a classical cornice or entablature dadothe part of a pedestal between the base and the cornice decastylea portico consisting of ten columns dentilone of a set of small square or rectangular blocks evenly spaced to form an ornamental row, usually under a classical cornice on a building, piece of furniture, etc diethe dado of a pedestal, usually cubic dogtootha carved ornament in the form of four leaflike projections radiating from a raised centre, used in England in the 13th centurydripa projection at the front lower edge of a sill or cornice designed to throw water clear of the wall below dripstone, label, or hood moulda drip made of stone echinusan ovolo moulding between the shaft and the abacus of a Doric column ectypea cast embossed or in relief egg and dart, egg and tongue, or egg and anchoran ornamental moulding in which a half egg shape alternates with a dart, tongue, or anchor shape ellan extension to a building, usually at right angles and located at one endembrasurean opening forming a door or window, having splayed sides that increase the width of the opening in the interior entablaturethe part of a classical temple above the columns, having an architrave, a frieze, and a cornice entasisa slightly convex curve given to the shaft of a column, pier, or similar structure, to correct the illusion of concavity produced by a straight shaft exedraa building, room, portico, or apse containing a continuous bench, used in ancient Greece and Rome for holding discussions extradosthe outer curve or surface of an arch or vault facade the face of a building, esp the main frontfacetthe raised surface between the flutes of a column fanlighta semicircular window over a door or window, often having sash bars like the ribs of a fan fantaila part or structure having a number of components radiating from a common centre fan tracerythe carved ornamentation on fan vaulting fan vaultingvaulting having ribs that radiate like those of a fan and spring from the top of a capital or corbelfascia or faciaa flat band or surface, esp a part of an architrave or cornice fasciaa flat band or surface, esp a part of an architrave or cornicefenestellaa niche in the side wall of a chancel, in which the credence or piscina are set fenestraa window or window-like opening in the outside wall of a buildingfestoona carved or painted representation of this, as in architecture, furniture, or pottery fillet or listelthe top member of a cornice finialan ornament on top of a spire, gable, etc, esp in the form of a foliated fleur-de-lys flèchea slender spire, esp over the intersection of the nave and transept ridges of a church roof flutinga design or decoration of flutes on a column, pilaster, etc flying buttress or arc-boutanta buttress supporting a wall or other structure by an arch or part of an arch that transmits the thrust outwards and downwards foila small arc between cusps, esp as used in Gothic window tracery footingthe lower part of a foundation of a column, wall, building, etc footstallthe pedestal, plinth, or base of a column, pier, or statue French windows or doorsa pair of casement windows extending to floor level and opening onto a balcony, garden, etc friezethe horizontal band between the architrave and cornice of a classical entablature, esp one that is decorated with sculpture frontispiecea pediment, esp an ornamented one, over a door, window, etc frustumthe part of a solid, such as a cone or pyramid, contained between the base and a plane parallel to the base that intersects the solid gablea triangular ornamental feature in the form of a gable, esp as used over a door or window gable endthe end wall of a building on the side which is topped by a gable gable windowa window positioned in a gable or having a small gable over it gadroon or godroona moulding composed of a series of convex flutes and curves joined to form a decorative pattern, used esp as an edge to silver articles gallerya balcony running along or around the inside wall of a church, hall, etc gambrel roofa hipped roof having a small gable at both endsgargoylea waterspout carved in the form of a grotesque face or creature and projecting from a roof gutter, esp of a Gothic church; any grotesque ornament or projection, esp on a buildinggarretthe space, room, or rooms just below the roof of a house, esp. a sloping roof; attic gartha courtyard surrounded by a cloister gatehousea building above or beside an entrance gate to a city, university, etc, often housing a porter or guard, or (formerly) used as a fortification; a small house at the entrance to the grounds of a country mansiongazeboa summerhouse, garden pavilion, or belvedere, sited to command a viewglypha carved channel or groove, esp a vertical one as used on a Doric frieze gradina ledge above or behind an altar on which candles, a cross, or other ornaments stand; one of a set of steps or seats arranged on a slope, as in an amphitheatregriffea carved ornament at the base of a column, often in the form of a claw groina curved arris formed where two intersecting vaults meet grottoa small cave, esp one with attractive features guttaone of a set of small droplike ornaments, esp as used on the architrave of a Doric entablature half landinga landing halfway up a flight of stairs haunch or hancethe part of an arch between the impost and the apex headworkthe ornamentation of the keystone of an arch heliclinea spiral-shaped ramphipped roofa roof having sloping ends and sidesimperiala dome that has a point at the top imposta member at the top of a wall, pier, or column that supports an arch, esp one that has a projecting moulding intradosthe inner curve or surface of an arch or vault jubea gallery or loft over the rood screen in a church or cathedral keystone, quoin, or headstonethe central stone at the top of an arch or the top stone of a dome or vault lancet arch, Gothic arch, or ogivea narrow acutely pointed arch having two centres of equal radii lancet windowa narrow window having a lancet arch landingthe floor area at the top of a flight of stairs or between two flights of stairslanterna structure on top of a dome or roof having openings or windows to admit light or air leaded(of windows) composed of small panes of glass held in place by thin grooved strips of leadloggiaa covered area on the side of a building, esp one that serves as a porch long-and-short workthe alternation in masonry of vertical and horizontal blocks of stonelouvreany of a set of horizontal parallel slats in a door or window, sloping outwards to throw off rain and admit air lucarnea type of dormer windowmachicolation(esp in medieval castles) a projecting gallery or parapet supported on corbels having openings through which missiles could be dropped mansarda roof having two slopes on both sides and both ends, the lower slopes being steeper than the upper meanderan ornamental pattern, esp as used in ancient Greek architecture medallionan oval or circular decorative device resembling a medal, usually bearing a portrait or relief moulding, used in architecture and textile design metopea square space between two triglyphs in a Doric frieze minareta slender tower of a mosque having one or more balconies from which the muezzin calls the faithful to prayermodillionone of a set of ornamental brackets under a cornice, esp as used in the Corinthian order mouldinga shaped outline, esp one used on cornices, etc mulliona vertical member between the casements or panes of a window or the panels of a screen mutuleone of a set of flat blocks below the corona of a Doric cornice narthexa portico at the west end of a basilica or church, esp one that is at right angles to the nave neckthe narrow band at the top of the shaft of a column between the necking and the capital, esp as used in the Tuscan order necking or gorgerinone or more mouldings at the top of a column between the shaft and the capital newelthe central pillar of a winding staircase, esp one that is made of stone nichea recess in a wall, esp one that contains a statue Norman arch or Roman archa semicircular arch, esp one in the Romanesque style of architecture developed by the Normans in England obeliska stone pillar having a square or rectangular cross section and sides that taper towards a pyramidal top, often used as a monument in ancient Egypt oeil-de-boeufa circular window, esp in 17th- and 18th-century French architecture offseta narrow horizontal or sloping surface formed where a wall is reduced in thickness towards the top ogee, ogee arch, or talona moulding having a cross section in the form of a letter S ogivea diagonal rib or groin of a Gothic vault onion domea bulb-shaped dome characteristic of Byzantine and Russian church architecture oriel or oriel windowa large window built out from a wall and resting on a bracket or a corbel; bay window ovolo, quarter round, or thumba convex moulding having a cross section in the form of a quarter of a circle or ellipse pacea step or small raised platform parapeta low wall or railing along the edge of a balcony, roof, etc patioan open inner courtyard, esp one in a Spanish or Spanish-American house; an area adjoining a house, esp one that is paved and used for outdoor activities pedestala base that supports a column, statue, etc, as used in classical architecture pedimenta low-pitched gable, esp one that is triangular, as used in classical architecture pendanta carved ornament that is suspended from a ceiling or roof penthousea carved ornament that is suspended from a ceiling or roofperistylea colonnade that surrounds a court or building perpenda large stone that passes through a wall from one side to the otherperronan external flight of steps, esp one at the front entrance of a buildingpiazzaa covered passageway or gallery piera structure with a deck that is built out over water, and used as a landing place, promenade, etc pillaran upright structure of stone, brick, metal, etc, that supports a superstructure or is used for ornamentation pinnaclea slender upright structure in the form of a cone, pyramid, or spire on the top of a buttress, gable, or tower platforma raised floor or other horizontal surface, such as a stage for speakersplinththe rectangular slab or block that forms the lowest part of the base of a column, statue, pedestal, or pier podiuma small raised platform used by lecturers, orchestra conductors, etc; dais predellaa painting or sculpture or a series of small paintings or sculptures in a long narrow strip forming the lower edge of an altarpiece or the face of an altar step or platform pylona monumental gateway, such as one at the entrance to an ancient Egyptian temple poppyheada carved ornament, esp one used on the top of the end of a pew or bench in Gothic church architecture porch or porticoan exterior roofed gallery, often partly enclosed; veranda portalan entrance, gateway, or doorway, esp one that is large and impressive porte-cocherea large covered entrance for vehicles leading into a courtyardposterna back door or gate, esp one that is for private use propylaeuma portico, esp one that forms the entrance to a temple quadranglea rectangular courtyard, esp one having buildings on all four sidesquatrefoila carved ornament having four foils arranged about a common centre, esp one used in tracery quirka continuous groove in an architectural moulding quoin, coign, or coignea stone forming the external corner of a wall reeda thin piece of cane or metal inserted into the tubes of certain wind instruments, which sets in vibration the air column inside the tube reedinga set of small semicircular architectural mouldings regleta flat narrow architectural moulding reliefthe projection of forms or figures from a flat ground, so that they are partly or wholly free of it responda pilaster or an engaged column that supports an arch or a lintel returnany part of an architectural feature that forms an angle with the main part revealthe vertical side of an opening in a wall, esp the side of a window or door between the frame and the front of the wall riba projecting moulding or band on the underside of a vault or ceiling, which may be structural or ornamental ridgethe top of a roof at the junction of two sloping sides rose window, rosace, or rosettea circular window, esp one that has ornamental tracery radiating from the centre to form a symmetrical roselike pattern rotundaa building or room having a circular plan, esp one that has a domeroundela small ornamental circular window, panel, medallion, plate, disc, etc saddle roof or saddlebacka roof that has a ridge and two gables sash windowa window consisting of two sashes placed one above the other so that one or each can be slid over the other to open the windowscotiaa deep concave moulding, esp one used on the base of an Ionic column between the two torus mouldings screena decorated partition, esp in a church around the choir scrollworkornamental work in scroll-like patterns, esp when done with a scroll sawsemidomea half-dome, esp one used to cover a semicircular apse shaftthe middle part of a column or pier, between the base and the capital sillthe lower horizontal member of a window or door frame skew archan arch or vault, esp one used in a bridge or tunnel, that is set at an oblique angle to the span skylighta window placed in a roof or ceiling to admit daylight soffitthe underside of a part of a building or a structural component, such as an arch, beam, stair, etc spandrel or spandrilan approximately triangular surface bounded by the outer curve of an arch and the adjacent wall spirea tall structure that tapers upwards to a point, esp one on a tower or roof or one that forms the upper part of a steeple splaya surface of a wall that forms an oblique angle to the main flat surfaces, esp at a doorway or window opening springerthe first and lowest stone of an arch squincha small arch, corbelling, etc, across an internal corner of a tower, used to support a superstructure such as a spire squint or hagioscopea narrow oblique opening in a wall or pillar of a church to permit a view of the main altar from a side aisle or transept steeplea tall ornamental tower that forms the superstructure of a church, temple, etc stele or stelaan upright stone slab or column decorated with figures or inscriptions, common in prehistoric times stoaa covered walk that has a colonnade on one or both sides, esp as used in ancient Greece straining piecea horizontal tie beam that connects the top of two queen posts of a roof truss strap workdecorative work resembling interlacing strapsstriaa narrow channel, such as a flute on the shaft of a column strigila decorative fluting, esp one in the shape of the letter S as used in Roman architecture stylobate or stereobatea continuous horizontal course of masonry that supports a colonnade summera stone on the top of a column, pier, or wall that supports an arch or lintel taenia or (U.S.) tenia(in ancient Greece) a narrow fillet or headband for the hair tambourthe sloping buttress on one side of the receiver's end of the court telamona column in the form of a male figure, used to support an entablatureterm, terminal, or terminusa sculptured post, esp one in the form of an armless bust or an animal on the top of a square pillar torus or torea large convex moulding approximately semicircular in cross section, esp one used on the base of a classical column tracerya pattern of interlacing ribs, esp as used in the upper part of a Gothic window, etc transepteither of the two wings of a cruciform church at right angles to the navetraversea gallery or loft inside a building that crosses it trefoilany of various related plants having leaves divided into three leaflets, such as bird's-foot trefoil tribunethe apse of a Christian basilica that contains the bishop's throne triforiuman arcade above the arches of the nave, choir, or transept of a church triglypha stone block in a Doric frieze, having three vertical channels trophyan ornamental carving that represents a group of weapons, etctrumeaua section of a wall or pillar between two openings turreta small tower that projects from the wall of a building, esp a medieval castletympanum or tympanthe recessed space bounded by the cornices of a pediment, esp one that is triangular in shape and ornamented underpitch vaulta vault that is intersected by one or more vaults of lower pitch vaultan arched structure that forms a roof or ceiling veranda or verandaha porch or portico, sometimes partly enclosed, along the outside of a building vergethe edge of the roof tiles projecting over a gable vignettea carved ornamentation that has a design based upon tendrils, leaves, etcvolute or helixa carved ornament, esp as used on an Ionic capital, that has the form of a spiral scroll water tablean offset or string course that has a moulding designed to throw rainwater clear of the wall below webthe surface of a ribbed vault that lies between the ribs whispering gallerya gallery or dome with acoustic characteristics such that a sound made at one point is audible at distant points xysta long portico, esp one used in ancient Greece for athletics ▷ See architecture
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