Synonyme von language: Language Groups
Afro-Asiatica family of languages of SW Asia and N Africa, consisting of the Semitic, ancient Egyptian, Berber, Cushitic, and Chadic subfamilies Albanianthe official language of Albania: of uncertain relationship within the Indo-European family, but thought to be related to ancient Illyrian Algonquian or Algonkiana family of North American Indian languages whose speakers ranged over an area stretching from the Atlantic between Newfoundland and Delaware to the Rocky Mountains, including Micmac, Mahican, Ojibwa, Fox, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, and Shawnee. Some linguists relate it to Muskogean in a Macro-Algonquian phylum Altaica postulated family of languages of Asia and SE Europe, consisting of the Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic branches, and perhaps also Japanese, Korean, and Ainu Anatolianthis family of languages, sometimes regarded as a branch of Indo-European Athapascan, Athapaskan, Athabascan, or Athabaskana group of North American Indian languages belonging to the Na-Dene phylum, including Apache and Navaho Arawakana family of American Indian languages found throughout NE South America Armenianthe language of the Armenians: an Indo-European language probably belonging to the Thraco-Phrygian branch, but containing many non-Indo-European elements Australiana linguistic phylum consisting of the languages spoken by the native Australians Austro-Asiatica hypothetical phylum or superfamily of languages consisting of Mon-Khmer and certain other languages of India and South-East Asia. Links with Malayo-Polynesian have also been suggested Austronesianof or relating to Austronesia, its peoples, or their languages Baltica branch of the Indo-European family of languages consisting of Lithuanian, Latvian, and Old Prussian Bantua group of languages of Africa, including most of the principal languages spoken from the equator to the Cape of Good Hope, but excluding the Khoisan family: now generally regarded as part of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo family Benue-Congoa branch of the Niger-Congo family of African languages, consisting of the Bantu languages together with certain other languages of W Africa Brythonicthe S group of Celtic languages, consisting of Welsh, Cornish, and Breton Caddoana family of Native American languages, including Pawnee, formerly spoken in a wide area of the Midwest, and probably distantly related to Siouan Canaanitica group of ancient languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family and including Canaanite, Phoenician, Ugaritic, and Hebrew Caribthe family of languages spoken by these peoples Caucasianany of three possibly related families of languages spoken in the Caucasus: North-West Caucasian, including Circassian and Abkhaz, North-East Caucasian, including Avar, and South Caucasian including Georgian Celtica branch of the Indo-European family of languages that includes Gaelic, Welsh, and Breton, still spoken in parts of Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and Brittany. Modern Celtic is divided into the Brythonic (southern) and Goidelic (northern) groups Chadica subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages, spoken in an area west and south of Lake Chad, the chief member of which is Hausa Chari-Nilea group of languages of E Africa, now generally regarded as a branch of the Nilo-Saharan family, spoken in parts of the Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, and adjacent countries Cushitica group of languages of Somalia, Ethiopia, NE Kenya, and adjacent regions: a subfamily within the Afro-Asiatic family of languages Cymricthe Welsh language Dardicthis group of languages Dravidiana family of languages spoken in S and central India and Sri Lanka, including Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Kannada, and Gondi East Germanica subbranch of the Germanic languages: now extinct. The only member of which records survive is Gothic East IranianEskimothe language of these peoples Finnicone of the two branches of the Finno-Ugric family of languages, including Finnish and several languages of NE Europe Germanica branch of the Indo-European family of languages that includes English, Dutch, German, the Scandinavian languages, and Gothic Gura small group of languages of W Africa, spoken chiefly in Burkina Faso and Ghana, forming a branch of the Niger-Congo family Hamitica group of N African languages related to Semitic. They are now classified in four separate subfamilies of the Afro-Asiatic family: Egyptian, Berber, Cushitic, and Chadic Hamito-SemiticHellenica branch of the Indo-European family of languages consisting of Greek in its various ancient and modern dialects Hindustania group of languages or dialects consisting of all spoken forms of Hindi and Urdu considered together Indicthis group of languages Indo-Aryana native speaker of an Indo-Aryan language Indo-Europeanthe Indo-European family of languages Indo-Iranianthis group of languages, sometimes considered as forming a single branch of Indo-European Indo-Pacifica hypothetical family of languages relating the languages of New Guinea other than Malayo-Polynesian. Tentative affiliations with Malayo-Polynesian or Australian languages have been suggested Iraniana branch of the Indo-European family of languages, divided into West Iranian (including Old Persian, Pahlavi, modern Persian, Kurdish, Baluchi, and Tajik) and East Iranian (including Avestan, Sogdian, Pashto, and Ossetic) Iroquoiana family of North American Indian languages including Cherokee, Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida, and Onondaga: probably related to Siouan Italica branch of the Indo-European family of languages that includes many of the ancient languages of Italy, such as Venetic and the Osco-Umbrian group, Latin, which displaced them, and the Romance languages Khoisana family of languages spoken in southern Africa by the Khoikhoi and Bushmen and by two small groups in Tanzania. A characteristic phonological feature of these languages is the use of suction stops (clicks) Kordofaniana group of languages spoken in the Kordofan and Nuba Hills of the S Sudan: classed as an independent family, probably distantly related to Niger-Congo Kwaa group of languages, now generally regarded as a branch of the Niger-Congo family, spoken in an area of W Africa extending from Côte d'Ivoire to E Nigeria and including Akan, Ewe, Yoruba, and Ibo Malayo-Polynesiana family of languages extending from Madagascar to the central Pacific, including Malagasy, Malay, Indonesian, Tagalog, and Polynesian Mandea group of African languages, a branch of the Niger-Congo family, spoken chiefly in Mali, Guinea, and Sierra Leone Mayana family of Central American Indian languages, including Maya, possibly a member of the Penutian phylum Melanesiana group or branch of languages spoken in Melanesia, belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian family Micronesiana group of languages spoken in Micronesia, belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian family Mongolica branch or subfamily of the Altaic family of languages, including Mongolian, Kalmuck, and Buryat Mon-Khmera family of languages spoken chiefly in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Assam; probably a member of the Austro-Asiatic phylum Mundaa family of languages spoken by scattered peoples throughout central India Muskogean or Muskhogeana family of North American Indian languages, probably distantly related to the Algonquian family Na-Dene or Na-Dénéa phylum of North American Indian languages including Athapascan, Tlingit, and Haida Ngunia group of Bantu languages of southern Africa, consisting chiefly of Zulu, Xhosa, and Swazi Niger-Congoa family of languages of Africa consisting of the Bantu languages together with most of the languages of the coastal regions of West Africa. The chief branches are Benue-Congo (including Bantu), Kwa, Mande, and West Atlantic Nilo-Saharana family of languages of Africa, spoken chiefly by Nilotic peoples in a region extending from the Sahara to Kenya and Tanzania, including the Chari-Nile, Saharan, Songhai, and other branches. Classification is complicated by the fact that many languages spoken in this region belong to the unrelated Afro-Asiatic, Kordofanian, and Niger-Congo families Nilotica group of languages of E Africa, including Luo, Dinka, and Masai, now generally regarded as belonging to the Chari-Nile branch of the Nilo-Saharan family Norsethe N group of Germanic languages, spoken in Scandinavia; Scandinavian North Germanica subbranch of the Germanic languages that consists of Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic, and their associated dialects Oceanica branch, group, or subfamily of the Malayo-Polynesian family of languages, comprising Polynesian and Melanesian Paharia group of Indo-European languages spoken in the Himalayas, divided into Eastern Pahari (Nepali) and Western Pahari (consisting of many dialects) Pama-NyunganPenutiana family of North American Indian languages of the Pacific coast Polynesiana branch of the Malayo-Polynesian family of languages, including Māori and Hawaiian and a number of other closely related languages of the S and central Pacific Rhaetiana group of Romance languages or dialects spoken in certain valleys of the Alps, including Romansch, Ladin, and Friulian Romancethis group of languages; the living languages that belong to the Italic branch of the Indo-European family Saharana group of languages spoken in parts of Chad and adjacent countries, now generally regarded as forming a branch of the Nilo-Saharan family Salish or Salishana family of North American Indian languages spoken in the northwestern US and W Canada Sana group of the Khoisan languages, spoken mostly by Bushmen Sanskriticthis group of languages Semi-Bantua group of languages of W Africa, mainly SE Nigeria and Cameroon, that were not traditionally classed as Bantu but that show certain essential Bantu characteristics. They are now classed with Bantu in the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo family Semitica branch or subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages that includes Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Amharic, and such ancient languages as Akkadian and Phoenician Semito-Hamitica former name for the Afro-Asiatic family of languages Shoshoneana subfamily of North American Indian languages belonging to the Uto-Aztecan family, spoken mainly in the southwestern US Siouana family of North American Indian languages including Sioux, probably related to Iroquoian Sinitica branch of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages, consisting of the various languages or dialects of Chinese Sino-Tibetana family of languages that includes most of the languages of China, as well as Tibetan, Burmese, and possibly Thai. Their most noticeable phonological characteristic is the phonemic use of tones Slavonica branch of the Indo-European family of languages, usually divided into three subbranches: South Slavonic (including Old Church Slavonic, Serbian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Bosnian, etc), East Slavonic (including Ukrainian, Russian, etc), and West Slavonic (including Polish, Czech, Slovak, etc) Sudanica group of languages spoken in scattered areas of the Sudan, most of which are now generally assigned to the Chari-Nile branch of the Nilo-Saharan family Tibeto-Burmana branch of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages, sometimes regarded as a family in its own right Trans-New Guinea phylumthe largest grouping of the non-Austronesian languages of Papua and New Guinea and the surrounding regions Tungusica branch or subfamily of the Altaic family of languages, including Tungus and Manchu Tupi-Guarania family of South American Indian languages spoken in Brazil, Paraguay, and certain adjacent regions: possibly distantly related to Quechua Turkica branch or subfamily of the Altaic family of languages, including Turkish, Turkmen, Kirghiz, Tatar, etc, members of which are found from Turkey to NE China, esp in central Asia Ugricone of the two branches of the Finno-Ugric family of languages, including Hungarian and some languages of NW Siberia Uralica superfamily of languages consisting of the Finno-Ugric family together with Samoyed Uto-Aztecana family of North and Central American Indian languages including Nahuatl, Shoshone, Pima, and Ute Voltaicthis group of languages Wakashana family of North American Indian languages of British Columbia and Washington, including Kwakiutl and Nootka West Atlantica branch of the Niger-Congo family of African languages, spoken in Senegal and in scattered areas eastwards, including Fulani and Wolof West Germanica subbranch of the Germanic languages that consists of English, Frisian, Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Low German, German, Yiddish, and their associated dialects West IranianWest SlavonicYumana family of North American Indian languages spoken chiefly in Arizona, California, and Mexico ▷ See language
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