Synonyme von philosophy: Philosophical schools and doctrines
animismAristotelianismatomismbehaviourism the doctrine that the mind has no separate existence but that statements about the mind and mental states can be analysed into statements about actual and potential behaviour. Cartesianismconceptualismthe philosophical view that there is no reality independent of our conception of it, or (as in the philosophy of Kant) that the intellect is not a merely passive recipient of experience but rather imposes a structure on it Confucianismconsequentialismthe doctrine that an action is right or wrong according as its consequences are good or bad conventionalismcritical realismcynicismdeismdeterminismthe philosophical doctrine that all events including human actions and choices are fully determined by preceding events and states of affairs, and so that freedom of choice is illusory dualismthe doctrine, as opposed to idealism and materialism, that reality consists of two basic types of substance usually taken to be mind and matter or two basic types of entity, mental and physical Eleaticismempiricismthe doctrine that all knowledge of matters of fact derives from experience and that the mind is not furnished with a set of concepts in advance of experience epicureanismessentialismone of a number of related doctrines which hold that there are necessary properties of things, that these are logically prior to the existence of the individuals which instantiate them, and that their classification depends upon their satisfaction of sets of necessary conditions existentialismfatalismthe philosophical doctrine that all events are predetermined so that man is powerless to alter his destiny fideismthe theological doctrine that religious truth is a matter of faith and cannot be established by reason hedonismthe doctrine that moral value can be defined in terms of pleasure Hegelianismthe philosophy of Hegel, who held that every existent idea or fact belongs to an all-embracing mind in which each idea or situation (thesis) evokes its opposite (antithesis) and these two result in a unified whole (synthesis), which in turn becomes a new thesis humanismidealismany of a group of philosophical doctrines that share the monistic view that material objects and the external world do not exist in reality independently of the human mind but are variously creations of the mind or constructs of ideas immaterialismthe doctrine that the material world exists only in the mind Kantianismthe philosophy of Kant, who held that the content of knowledge comes a posteriori from sense perception, but that its form is determined by a priori categories of the mind: he also declared that God, freedom, and immortality, although they cannot be proved or disproved, are necessary postulates of a rational morality logical atomismlogical positivismMarxismmaterialismthe monist doctrine that matter is the only reality and that the mind, the emotions, etc, are merely functions of it monismthe doctrine that the person consists of only a single substance, or that there is no crucial difference between mental and physical events or properties neo-Platonismnihilisma revolutionary doctrine of destruction for its own sake nominalismphenomenalismthe doctrine that statements about physical objects and the external world can be analysed in terms of possible or actual experiences, and that entities, such as physical objects, are only mental constructions out of phenomenal appearances Platonismthe realist doctrine that mathematical entities have real existence and that mathematical truth is independent of human thought pluralismthe metaphysical doctrine that reality consists of more than two basic types of substance positivismthe jurisprudential doctrine that the legitimacy of a law depends on its being enacted in proper form, rather than on its content pragmatismthe doctrine that the content of a concept consists only in its practical applicability Pyrrhonismthe doctrine taught by Pyrrho (c. 360-c. 270 b.c.), a Gr. Skeptic, that all knowledge, including the testimony of the senses, is uncertain Pythagoreanismrationalismthe school of philosophy initiated by Descartes which held both the above doctrines realismany similar school or style in other arts, esp literature scepticismscholasticismthe system of philosophy, theology, and teaching that dominated medieval western Europe and was based on the writings of the Church Fathers and (from the 12th century) Aristotle sensationalismthe doctrine that knowledge cannot go beyond the analysis of experience StoicismstructuralismTaoismthe philosophy of Lao Zi that advocates a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events theismThomismthe comprehensive system of philosophy and theology developed by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, and since taught and maintained by his followers, esp in the Dominican order utilitarianismthe doctrine that the morally correct course of action consists in the greatest good for the greatest number, that is, in maximizing the total benefit resulting, without regard to the distribution of benefits and burdens utopianismthe ideas, doctrines, aims, etc. of a utopian; visionary schemes for producing perfection in social or political conditions ▷ See philosophy
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