Sinonimi di acid: Specific acids
abietic acid a yellowish powder occurring naturally as a constituent of rosin and used in lacquers, varnishes, and soap. Formula: C19H29COOH; melting pt: 173°Cacetic acida colourless pungent liquid, miscible with water, widely used in the manufacture of acetic anhydride, vinyl acetate, plastics, pharmaceuticals, dyes, etc. Formula: CH3COOH.alginic acida white or yellowish powdery polysaccharide having marked hydrophilic properties. Extracted from kelp, it is used mainly in the food and textile industries and in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Formula: (C6H8O6)n; molecular wt: 32 000–250 000aminobenzoic acida derivative of benzoic acid existing in three isomeric forms, the para- form being used in the manufacture of dyes and sunburn preventatives. Formula: NH2C6H4COOH aspartic acida nonessential amino acid that is a component of proteins and acts as a neurotransmitter barbituric acida white crystalline solid used in the preparation of barbiturate drugs. Formula: C4H4N2O3.benzoic acida white crystalline solid occurring in many natural resins, used in the manufacture of benzoates, plasticizers, and dyes and as a food preservative (E210). Formula: C6H5COOH.boric acida white soluble weakly acid crystalline solid used in the manufacture of heat-resistant glass and porcelain enamels, as a fireproofing material, and as a mild antiseptic. Formula: H3BO3 butyric acida carboxylic acid existing in two isomeric forms, one of which produces the smell in rancid butter. Its esters are used in flavouring. Formula: C3(CH2)2COOH carbonic acida weak acid formed when carbon dioxide combines with water: obtained only in aqueous solutions, never in the pure state. Formula: H2CO3 chloric acida strong acid with a pungent smell, known only in solution and in the form of chlorate salts. Formula: HClO3 chloroacetic acida colourless crystalline soluble strong acid prepared by chlorinating acetic acid and used as an intermediate in the manufacture of many chemicals; monochloracetic acid. Formula: CH2ClCOOH chlorous acidan unstable acid that is a strong oxidizing agent. Formula: HClO2 cholic acida crystalline insoluble acid present in bile: used as an emulsifying agent and an intermediate in the synthesis of organic compounds. Formula: C24H40O5 chromic acidan unstable dibasic oxidizing acid known only in solution and in the form of chromate salts. Formula: H2CrO4 cinnamic acida white crystalline water-insoluble weak organic acid existing in two isomeric forms; 3-phenylpropenoic acid. The trans- form occurs naturally and its esters are used in perfumery. Formula: C6H5CH:CHCOOH citric acida water-soluble weak tribasic acid found in many fruits, esp citrus fruits, and used in pharmaceuticals and as a flavouring (E330). It is extracted from citrus fruits or made by fermenting molasses and is an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Formula: CH2(COOH)C(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH crotonic acida colourless crystalline insoluble unsaturated carboxylic acid produced by oxidation of crotonaldehyde and used in organic synthesis; trans-2-butenoic acid. Formula: CH3CH:CHCOOH cyanic acida colourless poisonous volatile liquid acid that hydrolyses readily to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Formula: HOCN decanedioic acida white crystalline carboxylic acid obtained by heating castor oil with sodium hydroxide, used in the manufacture of polyester resins and rubbers and plasticizers. Formula: HOOC(CH2)8COOH decanoic acida white crystalline insoluble carboxylic acid with an unpleasant odour, used in perfumes and for making fruit flavours. Formula: C9H19COOH dichromic acidan unstable dibasic oxidizing acid known only in solution and in the form of dichromate salts. Formula: H2Cr2O7 dithionous acidan unstable dibasic acid known only in solution and in the form of dithionite salts. It is a powerful reducing agent. Formula: H2S2O4 deoxyribonucleic acidthe full name for DNAdodecanoic acida crystalline fatty acid found as glycerides in many vegetable oils: used in making soaps, insecticides, and synthetic resins. Formula: CH3(CH2)10COOH erucic acida crystalline fatty acid derived from the oils of rapeseed, mustard seed, and wallflower seed formic acida colourless corrosive liquid carboxylic acid found in some insects, esp ants, and many plants: used in dyeing textiles and the manufacture of insecticides and refrigerants. Formula: HCOOH fulminic acidan unstable volatile acid known only in solution and in the form of its salts and esters. Formula: HONC fumaric acida colourless crystalline acid with a fruity taste, found in some plants and manufactured from benzene; trans-butenedioic acid: used esp in synthetic resins. Formula: HCOOCH:CHCOOH gallic acida colourless crystalline compound obtained from tannin: used as a tanning agent and in making inks, paper, and pyrogallol; 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid. Formula: C6H2(OH)3COOH glacial acetic acidpure acetic acid (more than 99.8 per cent) glyceric acida viscous liquid carboxylic acid produced by the oxidation of glycerol; 2,3-dihydroxypropanoic acid. Formula: C3H6O4 heptadecanoic acida colourless crystalline water-insoluble carboxylic acid used in organic synthesis. Formula: CH3(CH2)15COOH hexanoic acidan insoluble oily carboxylic acid found in coconut and palm oils and in milk. Formula: C5H11COOH hydnocarpic acida cyclic fatty acid occurring in the form of its glycerides in chaulmoogra oil. Formula: C16H28O2 hydrochloric acidthe colourless or slightly yellow aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride: a strong acid used in many industrial and laboratory processes hydrofluoric acidthe colourless aqueous solution of hydrogen fluoride: a strong acid that attacks glass hypochlorous acidan unstable acid known only in solution and in the form of its salts, formed when chlorine dissolves in water: a strong oxidizing and bleaching agent. Formula: HOCl hypophosphoric acida crystalline odourless deliquescent solid: a tetrabasic acid produced by the slow oxidation of phosphorus in moist air. Formula: H4P2O6 hypophosphorous acida colourless or yellowish oily liquid or white deliquescent solid: a monobasic acid and a reducing agent. Formula: H3PO2isocyanic acida hypothetical acid known only in the form of its compounds. Formula: HNCO itaconic acida white colourless crystalline carboxylic acid obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates and used in the manufacture of synthetic resins. Formula: CH2:C(COOH)CH2COOH lactic acida colourless syrupy carboxylic acid found in sour milk and many fruits and used as a preservative (E270) for foodstuffs, such as soft margarine, for making pharmaceuticals and adhesives, and produced in muscle tissue during strenuous exercise. Formula: CH3CH(OH)COOH linoleic acida colourless oily essential fatty acid found in many natural oils, such as linseed: used in the manufacture of soaps, emulsifiers, and driers. Formula: C18H32O2 linolenic acida colourless unsaturated essential fatty acid found in drying oils, such as linseed oil, and used in making paints and synthetic resins; 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. Formula: C18H30O2 lysergic acid a crystalline compound with a polycyclic molecular structure: used in medical research. Formula C16H16N2O2manganic acida hypothetical dibasic acid known only in solution and in the form of manganate salts. Formula: H2MnO4 mucic acida colourless crystalline solid carboxylic acid found in milk sugar and used in the manufacture of pyrrole. Formula: C4H4(OH)4(COOH)2 nitric acida colourless or yellowish fuming corrosive liquid usually used in aqueous solution. It is an oxidizing agent and a strong monobasic acid: important in the manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, and many other chemicals. Formula: HNO3 nitrous acida weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. Formula: HNO2 nonanoic acida colourless oily fatty acid with a rancid odour: used in making pharmaceuticals, lacquers, and plastics. Formula: CH3(CH2)7COOH octanedioic acida colourless crystalline dicarboxylic acid found in suberin and castor oil and used in the manufacture of synthetic resins. Formula: HOOC(CH2)6COOH oleic acida colourless oily liquid unsaturated acid occurring, as the glyceride, in almost all natural fats used in making soaps, ointments, cosmetics, and lubricating oils. Formula: CH3(CH2)7CH:CH(CH2)7COOH orthophosphoric acida colourless soluble solid tribasic acid used in the manufacture of fertilizers and soaps. Formula: H3PO4 oxalic acida colourless poisonous crystalline dicarboxylic acid found in many plants: used as a bleach and a cleansing agent for metals. Formula: (COOH)2 pantothenic acidan oily acid that is a vitamin of the B complex: occurs widely in animal and vegetable foods and is essential for cell growth. Formula: C9H17NO5 para-aminobenzoic acidan acid present in yeast and liver: used in the manufacture of dyes and pharmaceuticals. Formula: C6H4(NH2)COOH pectic acida complex acid containing arabinose and galactose that occurs in ripe fruit, beets, and other vegetables. Formula: C35H50O33 pentanoic acida colourless liquid carboxylic acid with an unpleasant odour, used in making perfumes, flavourings, and pharmaceuticals. Formula: CH3(CH2)3COOH permanganic acida monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of permanganate salts. Formula: HMnO4 phosphoric acida colourless solid tribasic acid used in the manufacture of fertilizers and soap. Formula: H3PO4 phthalic acida soluble colourless crystalline acid used in the synthesis of dyes and perfumes; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. Formula: C6H4(COOH)2 picric acida toxic sparingly soluble crystalline yellow acid used as a dye, antiseptic, and explosive. Formula: C6H2OH(NO2)3 platinocyanic acida hypothetical tetrabasic acid known only in the form of platinocyanide salts. Formula: H2Pt(CN)4 polyphosphoric acidany one of a series of oxyacids of phosphorus with the general formula Hn+2PnO3n+1. The first member is pyrophosphoric acid (n = 2) and the series includes the highly polymeric metaphosphoric acid. The higher acids exist in an equilibrium mixture propanoic acida colourless liquid carboxylic acid used in inhibiting the growth of moulds in bread. Formula: CH3CH2COOH prussic acidthe weakly acidic extremely poisonous aqueous solution of hydrogen cyanidepyroboric acidpyrophosphoric acida crystalline soluble solid acid formed by the reaction between one molecule of phosphorus pentoxide and two water molecules. Formula: H4P2O7 pyrosulphuric acida fuming liquid acid made by adding sulphur trioxide to concentrated sulphuric acid. Formula: H2S2O7 racemic acidthe optically inactive form of tartaric acid that is sometimes found in grape juice ricinoleic acidan oily unsaturated carboxylic acid found, as the glyceride, in castor oil and used in the manufacture of soap and in finishing textiles; 12-hydroxy-9-octadecanoic acid. Formula: C18H34O3 saccharic acida white soluble solid dicarboxylic acid obtained by the oxidation of cane sugar or starch; 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-hexanedioic acid. Formula: COOH(CHOH)4COOH selenic acida colourless crystalline soluble strong dibasic acid analogous to sulphuric acid. Formula: H2SeO4 selenious acida white soluble crystalline strong dibasic acid analogous to sulphurous acid. Formula: H2SeO3 silicic acida white gelatinous substance obtained by adding an acid to a solution of sodium silicate. It has an ill-defined composition and is best regarded as hydrated silica, SiO2.nH2O sorbic acida white crystalline unsaturated carboxylic acid found in berries of the mountain ash and used to inhibit the growth of moulds and as an additive for certain synthetic coatings, as of cheese (E200); 2,4-hexadienoic acid. It exists as cis- and trans- isomers, the latter being the one usually obtained. Formula: CH3CH:CHCH:CHCOOH stearic acida colourless odourless insoluble waxy carboxylic acid used for making candles and suppositories; octadecanoic acid. Formula: CH3(CH2)16COOH suberic acida dibasic acid, HOOC(CH2)6COOH, obtained by the oxidation of cork and from other sources succinic acida colourless odourless water-soluble dicarboxylic acid found in plant and animal tissues: used in making lacquers, dyes, perfumes, etc; 1,4-butanedioic acid. Formula: HOOCCH2:CH2COOH sulphonic acidany of a large group of strong organic acids that contain the group –SO2OH and are used in the manufacture of dyes and drugs sulphurous acidan unstable acid produced when sulphur dioxide dissolves in water: used as a preservative for food and a bleaching agent. Formula: H2SO3 tantalic acida white gelatinous substance produced by hydrolysis of tantalic halides. It dissolves in strong bases to give tantalatestartaric acida colourless or white odourless crystalline water-soluble dicarboxylic acid existing in four stereoisomeric forms, the commonest being the dextrorotatory (d-) compound which is found in many fruits: used as a food additive (E334) in soft drinks, confectionery, and baking powders and in tanning and photography. Formula: HOOCCH(OH)CH(OH)COOH telluric acida white crystalline dibasic acid produced by the oxidation of tellurium by hydrogen peroxide. Formula: H6TeO6 terebic acida white crystalline carboxylic acid produced by the action of nitric acid on turpentine. Formula: C7H10O4 terephthalic acida white crystalline water-insoluble carboxylic acid used in making polyester resins such as Terylene; 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid. Formula: C6H4(COOH)2 thiocyanic acidan unstable acid known in the form of thiocyanate salts. Formula: HSCN thiosulphuric acidan unstable acid known only in solutions and in the form of its salts. Formula: H2S2O3 trichloroacetic acida corrosive deliquescent crystalline acid with a characteristic odour, used as a veterinary astringent and antiseptic. Formula: CCl3COOH uric acida white odourless tasteless crystalline product of protein metabolism, present in the blood and urine; 2,6,8-trihydroxypurine. Formula: C5H4N4O3 ▷ See acid
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