Sinonimi di botany: Botany terms
abscissionthe separation of leaves, branches, flowers, and bark from plants by the formation of an abscission layer androeciumthe stamens of a flowering plant collectively androgynousantherthe terminal part of a stamen consisting usually of two lobes each containing two sacs in which the pollen matures archegoniuma female sex organ, occurring in mosses, spore-bearing vascular plants, and gymnosperms, that produces a single egg cell in its swollen base auxinany of various plant hormones, such as indoleacetic acid, that promote growth and control fruit and flower development. Synthetic auxins are widely used in agriculture and horticulture axilthe angle between the upper surface of a branch or leafstalk and the stem from which it grows axisthe main central part of a plant, typically consisting of the stem and root, from which secondary branches and other parts develop berryany of various small edible fruits such as the blackberry and strawberry bulba rounded organ of vegetative reproduction in plants such as the tulip and onion: a flattened stem bearing a central shoot surrounded by fleshy nutritive inner leaves and thin brown outer leaves calyxthe sepals of a flower collectively, forming the outer floral envelope that protects the developing flower bud cambiuma meristem that increases the girth of stems and roots by producing additional xylem and phloem carpelthe female reproductive organ of flowering plants, consisting of an ovary, style (sometimes absent), and stigma. The carpels are separate or fused to form a single pistil chlorophyllthe green pigment of plants and photosynthetic algae and bacteria that traps the energy of sunlight for photosynthesis and exists in several forms, the most abundant being chlorophyll a (C55H72O5N4Mg): used as a colouring agent in medicines or food (E140) chloroplasta plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments, occurring in plants and algae that carry out photosynthesis corman organ of vegetative reproduction in plants such as the crocus, consisting of a globular stem base swollen with food and surrounded by papery scale leaves corollathe petals of a flower collectively, forming an inner floral envelope coronathe trumpet-shaped part of the corolla of daffodils and similar plants; the crown cortexthe unspecialized tissue in plant stems and roots between the vascular bundles and the epidermis cotyledona simple embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, which, in some species, forms the first green leaf after germination cross-pollinationthe transfer of pollen from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of another flower by the action of wind, insects, etc cuticlethe protective layer, containing cutin, that covers the epidermis of higher plants dicotyledonany flowering plant of the class Dicotyledonae, normally having two embryonic seed leaves and leaves with netlike veins. The group includes many herbaceous plants and most families of trees and shrubs epidermisthe outer protective layer of cells of a plant, which may be thickened by a cuticle filamentthe thin wire, usually tungsten, inside a light bulb that emits light when heated to incandescence by an electric current flowerthe reproductive structure of angiosperm plants, consisting normally of stamens and carpels surrounded by petals and sepals all borne on the receptacle (one or more of these structures may be absent). In some plants it is conspicuous and brightly coloured and attracts insects or other animals for pollination foliationthe state of being in leaf fruit the ripened ovary of a flowering plant, containing one or more seeds. It may be dry, as in the poppy, or fleshy, as in the peach; any fleshy part of a plant, other than the above structure, that supports the seeds and is edible, such as the strawberry; the specialized spore-producing structure of plants that do not bear seeds geotropismthe response of a plant part to the stimulus of gravity. Plant stems, which grow upwards irrespective of the position in which they are placed, show negative geotropism germinateguard cellone of a pair of crescent-shaped cells that surround a pore (stoma) in the epidermis. Changes in the turgidity of the cells cause the opening and closing of the stoma gynoeciumhiluma scar on the surface of a seed marking its point of attachment to the seed stalk (funicle) hydrotropisminflorescencethe part of a plant that consists of the flower-bearing stalks insect pollinationintegumentthe protective layer around an ovule that becomes the seed coat keya systematic list of taxonomic characteristics, used to identify animals or plants laminathe flat blade of a leaf, petal, or thallus leafthe main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants, usually consisting of a flat green blade attached to the stem directly or by a stalk legumethe long dry dehiscent fruit produced by leguminous plants; a pod lenticelany of numerous pores in the stem of a woody plant allowing exchange of gases between the plant and the exterior meristema plant tissue responsible for growth, whose cells divide and differentiate to form the tissues and organs of the plant. Meristems occur within the stem (see cambium) and leaves and at the tips of stems and roots mesophyllthe soft chlorophyll-containing tissue of a leaf between the upper and lower layers of epidermis: involved in photosynthesis micropylea small opening in the integuments of a plant ovule through which the male gametes pass monocotyledonany flowering plant of the class Monocotyledonae, having a single embryonic seed leaf, leaves with parallel veins, and flowers with parts in threes: includes grasses, lilies, palms, and orchids nastic movementnuta dry one-seeded indehiscent fruit that usually possesses a woody wall operculumthe covering of the spore-bearing capsule of a moss ovarythe hollow basal region of a carpel containing one or more ovules. In some plants the carpels are united to form a single compound ovary ovulea small body in seed-bearing plants that consists of the integument(s), nucellus, and embryosac (containing the egg cell) and develops into the seed after fertilization palisade mesophyllphloemphotosynthesis(in plants) the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water (with the release of oxygen) using light energy absorbed by chlorophyll phototropismpistilthe female reproductive part of a flower, consisting of one or more separate or fused carpels; gynoecium piththe soft fibrous tissue lining the inside of the rind in fruits such as the orange and grapefruit plumulethe embryonic shoot of seed-bearing plants pollena fine powdery substance produced by the anthers of seed-bearing plants, consisting of numerous fine grains containing the male gametes pollinateracemean inflorescence in which the flowers are borne along the main stem, with the oldest flowers at the base. It can be simple, as in the foxglove, or compound radiclepart of the embryo of seed-bearing plants that develops into the main root receptaclethe enlarged or modified tip of the flower stalk that bears the parts of the flower rhizomea thick horizontal underground stem of plants such as the mint and iris whose buds develop new roots and shoots rootany plant part, such as a rhizome or tuber, that is similar to a root in structure, function, or appearance root capthe loose cells at the tip of a growing root, rubbed off by the motion of the root tip through the soil and constantly renewed from within root hairany of the hollow hairlike outgrowths of the outer cells of a root, just behind the tip, that absorb water and salts from the soil root nodulea swelling on the root of a leguminous plant, such as the pea or clover, that contains bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, capable of nitrogen fixation rosettea circular cluster of leaves growing from the base of a stem runnera slender stem with very long internodes, as of the strawberry, that arches down to the ground and propagates by producing roots and shoots at the nodes or tip sapseeda mature fertilized plant ovule, consisting of an embryo and its food store surrounded by a protective seed coat (testa) seed capsule or seedcasethe part of a fruit enclosing the seeds; pericarp seed podseed vessela dry fruit, such as a capsule self-pollinationthe transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma of the same flower or of another flower on the same plant sepalany of the separate parts of the calyx of a flower shootthe first aerial part of a plant to develop from a germinating seed spadixa racemose inflorescence having many small sessile flowers borne on a fleshy stem, the whole usually being surrounded by a spathe: typical of aroid plants spongy mesophyllsporangiumany organ, esp in fungi, in which asexual spores are produced sporea germ cell, seed, dormant bacterium, or similar body stamenthe male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of a stalk (filament) bearing an anther in which pollen is produced stemthe main axis of a plant, which bears the leaves, axillary buds, and flowers and contains a hollow cylinder of vascular tissue stigmathe receptive surface of a carpel, where deposited pollen germinates stolona long horizontal stem, as of the currants, that grows along the surface of the soil and propagates by producing roots and shoots at the nodes or tip stomastylethe stalk of a carpel, bearing the stigma testaa hard protective outer layer of the seeds of flowering plants; seed coat translocationtranspirationtropismtubera fleshy underground stem (as in the potato) or root (as in the dahlia) that is an organ of vegetative reproduction and food storage vascular bundlea longitudinal strand of vascular tissue in the stems and leaves of higher plants vegetative reproductionwind-pollinatedxylema plant tissue that conducts water and mineral salts from the roots to all other parts, provides mechanical support, and forms the wood of trees and shrubs. It is of two types (protoxylem and metaxylem), both of which are made up mainly of vessels and tracheids ▷ See botany
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