Sinônimos de law: Law terms
abandoneeabateabatorabetabeyanceableabsente reoabsoluteacceptance(contract law)words or conduct by which a person signifies his assent to the terms and conditions of an offer or agreement accessory or accessaryaccretionan increase in the share of a beneficiary in an estate, as when a co-beneficiary fails to take his share accrueaccusationan allegation that a person is guilty of some fault, offence, or crime; imputation accusatorialaccuseaccused, theacquitactionbehaviour which is voluntary and explicable in terms of the agent's reasons, as contrasted with that which is coerced or determined causally actionableact of Godadjectivead litemdesignating a person appointed by a court to represent a minor or an incompetent adult in a lawsuit adminiclesomething contributing to prove a point without itself being complete proof administration orderan order by a court appointing a person to manage a company that is in financial difficulty, in an attempt to ensure the survival of the company or achieve the best realization of its assets admissibleadoptadultadvocatea person who pleads his client's cause in a court of law advocationthe transfer to itself by a superior court of an action pending in a lower court affianta person who makes an affidavit affidavita declaration in writing made upon oath before a person authorized to administer oaths, esp for use as evidence in court affiliate or filiateaffiliation or filiationthe fact of being the child of certain parents affiliation order(formerly) an order made by a magistrates' court that a man adjudged to be the father of an illegitimate child shall contribute a specified periodic sum towards the child's maintenance affiliation proceedings or (U.S.) paternity suit(formerly) legal proceedings, usually initiated by an unmarried mother, claiming legal recognition that a particular man is the father of her child, often associated with a claim for financial support affirmaffirmationa solemn declaration permitted on grounds of conscientious objection to taking an oath affraya fight, noisy quarrel, or disturbance between two or more persons in a public place agistalibia defence by an accused person that he was elsewhere at the time the crime in question was committed alienablealienatealienationthe transfer of property, as by conveyance or will, into the ownership of another alieneea person to whom a transfer of property is made alienora person who transfers property to another alimony(formerly) an allowance paid under a court order by one spouse to another when they are separated but not divorced allegealluvionthe gradual formation of new land, as by the recession of the sea or deposit of sediment on a riverbed ambulatorya mensa et thoroamerce (obsolete)amicus curiaea person not directly engaged in a case who advises the court amnestya period during which a law is suspended to allow offenders to admit their crime without fear of prosecution ancientannulmenta formal invalidation, as of a marriage, judicial proceeding, etc answer(in divorce law) the respondent's written reply to the petition Anton Piller orderappealthe judicial review by a superior court of the decision of a lower tribunal appearancethe formal attendance in court of a party in an action appellanta person who appeals appellateappelleeappendanta subordinate right or interest, esp in or over land, attached to a greater interest and automatically passing with the sale of the latter approvearbitraryarbitrationthe hearing and determination of a dispute, esp an industrial dispute, by an impartial referee selected or agreed upon by the parties concerned arraignarraya panel of jurors arrest judgmentarrest of judgementarticled clerka trainee solicitor bound by a written contract assaultan intentional or reckless act that causes another person to expect to be subjected to immediate and unlawful violence assessora person with technical expertise called in to advise a court on specialist matters assetsthe property and claims against debtors that a business enterprise may apply to discharge its liabilities. Assets may be fixed, current, liquid, or intangible and are shown balanced against liabilities assigna person to whom property is assigned; assignee assigneea convict who had undergone assignment assignmentthe transfer to another of a right, interest, or title to property, esp personal property assignora person who transfers or assigns property assumpsit(before 1875) an action to recover damages for breach of an express or implied contract or agreement that was not under seal attachattachmentthe arrest of a person for disobedience to a court order attainder(formerly) the extinction of a person's civil rights resulting from a sentence of death or outlawry on conviction for treason or felony attaint (archaic)attornattorneya lawyer qualified to represent clients in legal proceedings attorney-at-lawa lawyer qualified to represent in court a party to a legal action attorney generala country's chief law officer and senior legal adviser to its government authenticauthoritya judicial decision, statute, or rule of law that establishes a principle; precedent automatismthe explanation of an action, or of action in general, as determined by the physiological states of the individual, admissible in law as a defence when the physiological state is involuntary, as in sleepwalking averavoidavoidancethe countering of an opponent's plea with fresh evidence avow (rare)avulsiona forcible tearing away or separation of a bodily structure or part, either as the result of injury or as an intentional surgical procedure awarda grant made by a court of law, esp of damages in a civil action baila sum of money by which a person is bound to take responsibility for the appearance in court of another person or himself or herself, forfeited if the person fails to appear bailablebailee(contract law)a person to whom the possession of goods is transferred under a bailment bailiffa sheriff's officer who serves writs and summonses, makes arrests, and ensures that the sentences of the court are carried out bailiwickthe area over which a bailiff has jurisdiction bailment(contract law)the act of granting bail bailor(contract law)a person who retains ownership of goods but entrusts possession of them to another under a bailment bailsman (rare)someone who stands bail for another banan official prohibition or interdiction bankrupta person adjudged insolvent by a court, his or her property being transferred to a trustee and administered for the benefit of his creditors bar(in England) the area in a court of law separating the part reserved for the bench and Queen's Counsel from the area occupied by junior barristers, solicitors, and the general public baron(English law)(in Europe from the Middle Ages) originally any tenant-in-chief of a king or other overlord, who held land from his superior by honourable service; a land-holding nobleman barratry or barretry(formerly) the vexatious stirring up of quarrels or bringing of lawsuits barrister or barrister-at-law(in England) a lawyer who has been called to the bar and is qualified to plead in the higher courts bench, thejudges or magistrates collectively benchera member of the governing body of one of the Inns of Court, usually a judge or a Queen's Counsel beneficialbeneficiarya person entitled to receive funds or other property under a trust, will, or insurance policy bequeathbequesta gift of property by will, esp personal property bigamybill of attainder(formerly) a legislative act finding a person guilty without trial of treason or felony and declaring him attainted bill of indictmenta formal document accusing a person or persons of crime, formerly presented to a grand jury for certification as a true bill but now signed by a court official bill of salea deed transferring personal property, either outright or as security for a loan or debt blasphemy or blasphemous libelbody corporatebona fidesgood faith; honest intention bona vacantiabonda written acknowledgment of an obligation to pay a sum or to perform a contract bondsmana person bound by bond to act as surety for another breach of promisebreach of the peacean offence against public order causing an unnecessary disturbance of the peace breach of trusta violation of duty by a trustee or any other person in a fiduciary position briefa document containing all the facts and points of law of a case by which a solicitor instructs a barrister to represent a client brieflessbringburden of proofthe obligation, in criminal cases resting initially on the prosecution, to provide evidence that will convince the court or jury of the truth of one's contention capias(formerly) a writ directing a sheriff or other officer to arrest a named person capitalinvolving or punishable by death captionthe formal heading of a legal document stating when, where, and on what authority it was taken or made carnal knowledgecartulary or chartularya collection of charters or records, esp relating to the title to an estate or monastery casean action or suit at law or something that forms sufficient grounds for bringing an action case lawlaw established by following judicial decisions given in earlier cases case stated or stated casea statement of the facts of a case prepared by one court for the opinion or judgment of another court cassation(esp in France) annulment, as of a judicial decision by a higher court causea ground for legal action; matter giving rise to a lawsuit cautiona formal warning given to a person suspected or accused of an offence that his or her words will be taken down and may be used in evidence CAV, Cur. adv. vult, or Curia advisari vultcaveata formal notice requesting the court or officer to refrain from taking some specified action without giving prior notice to the person lodging the caveat caveatora person who enters a caveat certificate of incorporation(company law)a signed statement by the Registrar of Companies that a company is duly incorporated chamber counsel or counsellora counsel who advises in private and does not plead in court chambersa judge's room for hearing cases not taken in open court certificationa document attesting the truth of a fact or statement certiorarian order of a superior court directing that a record of proceedings in a lower court be sent up for review cessorcessionarya person to whom something is transferred; assignee; grantee challengea questioning of a statement or fact; a demand for justification or explanation challenge to the arrayan objection by counsel to the whole panel of jurors called to a trial challenge to the pollsan objection by counsel to one or more of the individual jurors called to a trial champerty(formerly) an illegal bargain between a party to litigation and an outsider whereby the latter agrees to pay for the action and thereby share in any proceeds recovered chance-medleya sudden quarrel in which one party kills another; unintentional but not blameless killing chancery(in England) the Lord Chancellor's court, now a division of the High Court of Justice change of venuethe removal of a trial out of one jurisdiction into another chargean accusation or allegation, such as a formal accusation of a crime in law chargeablecheatchief justice(in any of several Commonwealth countries) the judge presiding over a supreme court chosean article of personal property circuit(English law)one of six areas into which England is divided for the administration of justice citationthe quoting of a book or author in support of a fact citecivil deathcivil marriageclerk to the justices(in England) a legally qualified person who sits in court with lay justices to advise them on points of law closeprivate property, usually enclosed by a fence, hedge, or wall codicila supplement modifying a will or revoking some provision of it codificationthe collection into one body of the principles of a system of law coexecutorcognizable or cognisablecognizance or cognisancethe right of a court to hear and determine a cause or matter collusiona secret agreement between opponents at law in order to obtain a judicial decision for some wrongful or improper purpose come oncommitment, committal, or (especially formerly) mittimusan obligation, promise, etc that restricts one's freedom of action commonthe right to go onto someone else's property and remove natural products, as by pasturing cattle or fishing (esp in the phrase right of common) commonagethe use of something, esp a pasture, in common with others common lawthe body of law based on judicial decisions and custom, as distinct from statute law commutablecommutationthe reduction in severity of a penalty imposed by law commutecompetence the state of being legally competent or qualified competencycapacity to testify in a court of law; eligibility to be sworn competentcomplainanta person who makes a complaint, usually before justices; plaintiff complaint(English law)a statement by which a civil proceeding in a magistrates' court is commenced complete(law)compoundto agree not to prosecute in return for a consideration compliance officera specialist, usually a lawyer, employed by a financial group operating in a variety of fields and for multiple clients to ensure that no conflict of interest arises and that all obligations and regulations are complied with compositiona settlement by mutual consent, esp a legal agreement whereby the creditors agree to accept partial payment of a debt in full settlement compurgation(formerly) a method of trial whereby a defendant might be acquitted if a sufficient number of persons swore to his innocence conclusionan admission or statement binding on the party making it; estoppel condemnconditiona declaration or provision in a will, contract, etc, that makes some right or liability contingent upon the happening of some event condoneconfiscateconnivance the tacit encouragement of or assent to another's wrongdoing, esp (formerly) of the petitioner in a divorce suit to the respondent's adultery conniveconscience clausea clause in a law or contract exempting persons with moral scruples consensualconsiderationthe promise, object, etc, given by one party to persuade another to enter into a contract consolidationthe combining of two or more actions at law consortiumconstituenta person who appoints another to act for him, as by power of attorney constituteconstructivecontemptwilful disregard of or disrespect for the authority of a court of law or legislative body contentiouscontinuance (US)(in the US) the postponement or adjournment of a legal proceedingcontrabandgoods that are prohibited by law from being exported or imported contractthe branch of law treating of contracts contractora person who is a party to a contract contributory(company law)a member or former member of a company liable to contribute to the assets on the winding-up of the company contributory negligencecontumacythe wilful refusal of a person to appear before a court or to comply with a court order conveneconventionalconversionunauthorized dealing with or the assumption of rights of ownership to another's personal property convertconveyancea transfer of the legal title to property convincingcoparcenary or coparcenya form of joint ownership of property, esp joint heirship coparcener or parcenercopyholda tenure less than freehold of land in England evidenced by a copy of the Court roll copyholder(formerly) a person who held land by copyhold tenure co-respondenta person cited in divorce proceedings, who is alleged to have committed adultery with the respondent coronera public official responsible for the investigation of violent, sudden, or suspicious deaths and inquiries into treasure trove. The investigation (coroner's inquest) is held in the presence of a jury (coroner's jury) coroner's inquestcoroner's jurya jury called to give a decision by a coroner's inquest corpus delictithe body of facts that constitute an offence corpus jurisa body of law, esp the laws of a nation or state Corpus Juris Civilisthe body of Roman or civil law consolidated by Justinian in the 6th century ad. It consists of four parts, the Institutes, Digest, Code, and Novels coststhe expenses of judicial proceedings counsela barrister or group of barristers engaged in conducting cases in court and advising on legal matters counselor or counselor-at-law (US)a lawyer, esp one who conducts cases in court; attorney counta paragraph in an indictment containing a distinct and separate charge counterchargea charge brought by an accused person against the accuser counterclaima claim set up in opposition to another, esp by the defendant in a civil action against the plaintiff counterparta duplicate, esp of a legal document; copy countersignto sign (a document already signed by another) county court(in England) a local court exercising limited jurisdiction in civil matters courtan authority having power to adjudicate in civil, criminal, military, or ecclesiastical matterscourt of first instancea court in which legal proceedings are begun or first heard covenant(in early English law) an action in which damages were sought for breach of a sealed agreement coverturethe condition or status of a married woman considered as being under the protection and influence of her husband covina conspiracy between two or more persons to act to the detriment or injury of another criminal conversation(formerly) a common law action brought by a husband by which he claimed damages against an adulterer criminate (rare)cross-examinecrown attorney (Canadian)crown court(English law)a court of criminal jurisdiction holding sessions in towns throughout England and Wales at which circuit judges hear and determine cases crueltyconduct that causes danger to life or limb or a threat to bodily or mental health, on proof of which a decree of divorce may be granted culpa(civil law)culprita person awaiting trial, esp one who has pleaded not guilty cumulative evidenceadditional evidence reinforcing testimony previously given custodiana person who has custody, as of a prisoner, ward, etc custodycustoma practice which by long-established usage has come to have the force of law customarya statement in writing of customary laws and practices cy presthe doctrine that the intention of a donor or testator should be carried out as closely as practicable when literal compliance is impossible damagesmoney to be paid as compensation to a person for injury, loss, etc damnifydead lettera law or ordinance that is no longer enforced but has not been formally repealed debatabledecedent mainly US)declaranta person who makes a declaration declarationthe ruling of a judge or court on a question of law, esp in the chancery division of the High Court declaratorydecreean edict, law, etc, made by someone in authority decree absolutethe final decree in divorce proceedings, which leaves the parties free to remarry decree nisia provisional decree, esp in divorce proceedings, which will later be made absolute unless cause is shown why it should not deedaction or performance, as opposed to words deed polla deed made by one party only, esp one by which a person changes his or her name defalcatedefamationdefaulta failure to act, esp a failure to meet a financial obligation or to appear in a court of law at a time specified defeasibledefeatan annulment defencea defendant's denial of the truth of the allegations or charge against him or her defendanta person against whom an action or claim is brought in a court of law deferred sentencea sentence that is postponed for a specific period to allow a court to examine the conduct of the offender during the deferment de juredelict(Roman law)a civil wrong redressable by compensation or punitive damages demanda formal legal claim, esp to real property demandant(formerly) the plaintiff in an action relating to real property demisit sine proledemurdemurrera pleading that admits an opponent's point but denies that it is a relevant or valid argument denunciation (obsolete)a charge or accusation of crime made by an individual before a public prosecutor or tribunal deodand(English law)(formerly) a thing that had caused a person's death and was forfeited to the crown for a charitable purpose: abolished 1862 deponenta person who makes an affidavit deposedepositionthe giving of testimony on oath deraign or darraign (obsolete)dereliction descendible or descendabledesertionwilful abandonment, esp of one's spouse or children, without consent and in breach of obligations detainerthe detention of a person in custody determinabledeterminationthe termination of an estate or interest determinedetinuean action brought by a plaintiff to recover goods wrongfully detained devil(in England) a junior barrister who does work for another in order to gain experience, usually for a half fee devisabledevisea disposition of property by will devolvedies non or dies non juridicusdigesta compilation of rules of law based on decided cases diligencediminished responsibilitya plea under which proof of an impairing abnormality of mind is submitted as demonstrating lack of premeditation and therefore criminal responsibility direct evidenceevidence, usually the testimony of a witness, directly relating to the fact in dispute disaffirmdisafforest or disforest (English law)disannuldisbardischargea release, as of a person held under legal restraint disclaimdiscommondiscontinuediscovertdiscoverythe compulsory disclosure by a party to an action of relevant documents in his or her possession disinheritdismissdisorderlydisorderly conductany of various minor offences tending to cause a disturbance of the peace disorderly housedissentthe voicing of a minority opinion in announcing the decision on a case at law; dissenting judgment distrain or distressthe seizure and holding of property as security for payment of or in satisfaction of a debt, claim, etc; distraint distraineea person whose property has been seized by way of distraint distraintthe act or process of distraining; distress distributee mainly US)a person entitled to share in the estate of an intestate distributionthe lawful division of the assets of a bankrupt among his or her creditors distringas(formerly) a writ directing a sheriff to distrain disturbancedividendthe proportion of an insolvent estate payable to the creditors divorce from bed and board (US)docketan official summary of the proceedings in a court of justice documentationthe furnishing and use of documentary evidence, as in a court of law Doe(formerly) the plaintiff in a fictitious action, Doe versus Roe, to test a point of law domainthe absolute ownership and right to dispose of land doneedonora person who makes a gift of property dot(civil law) a woman's dowry dotationthe act of giving a dowry; endowment dowabledowerthe life interest in a part of her husband's estate allotted to a widow by law droita legal or moral right or claim; due due process of lawthe administration of justice in accordance with established rules and principles duressthe illegal exercise of coercionearnest or earnest money (contract law)a part or portion of something given in advance as a guarantee of the remainder effectualemblementseminent domainthe right of a state to confiscate private property for public use, payment usually being made to the owners in compensation empanel or impanelencumbrancea burden or charge upon property, such as a mortgage or lien encumbrancera person who holds an encumbrance on property belonging to another enfranchise(English law)engrossengrossmenta deed or other document that has been engrossed enjoinenterequitableequitya system of jurisprudence founded on principles of natural justice and fair conduct. It supplements the common law and mitigates its inflexibility, as by providing a remedy where none exists at law escheatescrowmoney, goods, or a written document, such as a contract bond, delivered to a third party and held by him pending fulfilment of some condition estopestoppela rule of evidence whereby a person is precluded from denying the truth of a statement of facts he has previously asserted estoversa right allowed by law to tenants of land to cut timber, esp for fuel and repairs estrayestreata true copy of or extract from a court record evictevidencematter produced before a court of law in an attempt to prove or disprove a point in issue, such as the statements of witnesses, documents, material objects, etc evocation(French law)the transference of a case from an inferior court for adjudication by a higher tribunal examinationthe formal interrogation of a person on oath, esp of an accused or a witness examineexamine-in-chiefexceptiona clause or term in a document that restricts the usual legal effect of the document executeexecutionthe enforcement of the judgment of a court of law executor or (fem.) executrixa person appointed by a testator to carry out the wishes expressed in his or her will executoryexemplary damagesdamages awarded to a plaintiff above the value of actual loss sustained so that they serve also as a punishment to the defendant and a deterrent to others exemplifyexhibita document or object produced in court and referred to or identified by a witness in giving evidence ex parteexpectancyexpropriateextendextent (US)a writ authorizing a person to whom a debt is due to assume temporary possession of his debtor's lands extinguishextraditableextraditeextrajudicialeyre(English legal history)any of the circuit courts held in each shire from 1176 until the late 13th century factan actual event, happening, etc, as distinguished from its legal consequences. Questions of fact are decided by the jury, questions of law by the court or judge factor(commercial law)a person to whom goods are consigned for sale and who is paid a factorage false imprisonmentthe restraint of a person's liberty without lawful authority Family Divisionfelo de sefemefeme covertfeme solea single woman, whether spinster, widow, or divorcee fictionsomething assumed to be true for the sake of convenience, though probably false fideicommissary(civil law)a person who receives a fideicommissum fideicommissum(civil law)a gift of property, usually by will, to be held on behalf of another who cannot receive the gift directly fiduciary or fiduciala person bound to act for another's benefit, as a trustee in relation to his or her beneficiary fieri faciasa writ ordering a levy on the belongings of an adjudged debtor to satisfy the debt filefiliatefiliationthe fact of being the child of certain parents find to determine an issue after judicial inquiry and pronounce a verdict (upon) findingthe conclusion reached after a judicial inquiry; verdict first offenderfiscal(in some countries) a public prosecutor flawan invalidating fault or defect in a document or proceeding folioa unit of measurement of the length of legal documents, determined by the number of words, generally 72 or 90 in Britain and 100 in the US forbearanceforce majeureirresistible force or compulsion such as will excuse a party from performing his or her part of a contract forecloseforeignforemanthe principal juror, who presides at the deliberations of a jury forensicthe use of knowledge and techniques derived from various sciences, as ballistics and medicine, in the investigation of crime forensic medicine, legal medicine, or medical jurisprudencethe applied use of medical knowledge or practice, esp pathology, to the purposes of the law, as in determining the cause of death forest(formerly) an area of woodland, esp one owned by the sovereign and set apart as a hunting ground with its own laws and officers forfeitsomething confiscated as a penalty for an offence, breach of contract, etc forjudge or forejudgefornicationvoluntary sexual intercourse outside marriage freefungiblemoveable perishable goods of a sort that may be estimated by number or weight, such as grain, wine, etc garnishgarnisheea person upon whom a garnishment has been served garnishmenta notice warning a person holding money or property belonging to a debtor whose debt has been attached to hold such property until directed by the court to apply it gavelkind(English law)a former system of land tenure peculiar to Kent based on the payment of rent to the lord instead of the performance of services by the tenant gistthe essential point of an action goods and chattelsany property that is not freehold, usually limited to include only moveable property grand jury mainly US)(esp in the US and, now rarely, in Canada) a jury of between 12 and 23 persons summoned to inquire into accusations of crime and ascertain whether the evidence is adequate to found an indictment. Abolished in Britain in 1948 grand larcenygranteea person to whom a grant is made granta transfer of property by deed or other written instrument; conveyance grantora person who makes a grant gratuitousgravamenthat part of an accusation weighing most heavily against an accused grith(English legal history)ground rentguaranteea promise, esp a collateral agreement, to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another guardian(in England) a local authority, or person accepted by it, named under the Mental Health Act 1983 as having the powers to require a mentally disordered person to live at a specified place, attend for treatment, and be accessible to a doctor or social worker guiltyhabeas corpusa writ ordering a person to be brought before a court or judge, esp so that the court may ascertain whether his detention is lawful hand down (US, Canadian)handlingthe act of receiving property that one knows or believes to be stolen hearhearingthe investigation of a matter by a court of law, esp the preliminary inquiry into an indictable crime by magistrates hearsayheir or (fem.) heiress (civil law)the person legally succeeding to all property of a deceased person, irrespective of whether such person died testate or intestate, and upon whom devolves as well as the rights the duties and liabilities attached to the estate heirshipthe state or condition of being an heir hereditaryheres or haeres (civil law)heritableheritageany property, esp land, that by law has descended or may descend to an heir heritorholdera person who has possession of a bill of exchange, cheque, or promissory note that he is legally entitled to enforce homologatehung jurya jury that is unable to reach a decision hypothec(Roman law)a charge on property in favour of a creditor hypothecateimmovableimmovable objects or property, as land, buildings, etc. impartibleimpedimentan obstruction to the making of a contract, esp a contract of marriage by reason of closeness of blood or affinity imperfectimplead (rare)imprescriptablein articlesin bancin camerain a judge's private office rather than in open court incapacitateincapacityin chanceryincompetentincorporealincriminateindefeasibleindemnitycompensation for loss or damage; reimbursement indentureany deed, contract, or sealed agreement between two or more parties indeterminate sentencea prison sentence the length of which depends on the prisoner's conduct inducement(in pleading) the introductory part that leads up to and explains the matter in dispute in escrowinfantin feeinferior courta court of limited jurisdiction infirmin flagrante delicto or flagrante delictoingoinginheritancehereditary succession to an estate, title, etc injunctionan instruction or order issued by a court to a party to an action, esp to refrain from some act, such as causing a nuisance injurya violation or infringement of another person's rights that causes him harm and is actionable at law innuendoan indirect or subtle reference, esp one made maliciously or indicating criticism or disapproval; insinuation in personamin posseinquestan inquiry into the cause of an unexplained, sudden, or violent death, or as to whether or not property constitutes treasure trove, held by a coroner, in certain cases with a jury inquisitionan official inquiry, esp one held by a jury before an officer of the Crown inquisitorialin remdesignating an action or judgment against a thing, as property, as distinguished from one against a person (in personam) insanitya defect of reason as a result of mental illness, such that a defendant does not know what he or she is doing or that it is wrong in specieinstanterinstitutesa digest or summary, esp of laws instructinstructionsthe facts and details relating to a case given by a client to his solicitor or by a solicitor to a barrister with directions to conduct the case insurable interesta financial or other interest in the life or property covered by an insurance contract, without which the contract cannot be enforced intendmentthe meaning of something as fixed or understood by the law intentthe will or purpose with which one does an act intentionthe resolve or design with which a person does or refrains from doing an act, a necessary ingredient of certain offencesinterdict(civil law)any order made by a court or official prohibiting an act interlocutoryinterpleadinterpleadera process by which a person holding money or property claimed by two or more parties and having no interest in it himself can require the claimants to litigate with each other to determine the issue interrogatorieswritten questions asked by one party to a suit, to which the other party has to give written answers under oath interveneinter vivosintestatea person who dies without having made a will invalidatein venteripso jureirrepleviable or irreplevisableissuableissuethe matter remaining in dispute between the parties to an action after the pleadings jail delivery(English law)(formerly) a commission issued to assize judges when they come to a circuit town authorizing them to try all prisoners and release those acquitted jeopardydanger of being convicted and punished for a criminal offence joinder(in pleading) the stage at which the parties join issue (joinder of issue) joint(of persons) combined in ownership or obligation; regarded as a single entity in law jointressa woman entitled to a jointure jointureprovision made by a husband for his spouse by settling property upon her or him at marriage for her or his use after the husband's death judgea public official with authority to hear cases in a court of law and pronounce judgment upon them judge-madejudges' rules(in English law, formerly) a set of rules, not legally binding, governing the behaviour of police towards suspects, as in administering a caution to a person under arrest judgment or judgementthe decision or verdict pronounced by a court of law judgment by defaultjudicablejudicativejudicatorya court of law judicaturethe administration of justice judicialjudicial separation(family law)a court decree requiring a man and wife to cease cohabiting but not dissolving the marriage judiciarythe branch of the central authority in a state concerned with the administration of justice junior(in England) any barrister below the rank of Queen's Counsel juraljurata statement at the foot of an affidavit, naming the parties, stating when, where, and before whom it was sworn, etc juratoryjuridicaljurisconsulta person qualified to advise on legal matters jurisprudencethe science or philosophy of law jurisprudentjurista person versed in the science of law, esp Roman or civil law juristicjurora member of a jury jurya group of, usually twelve, people sworn to deliver a true verdict according to the evidence upon a case presented in a court of law juryman or (fem.) jurywomana member of a jury, esp a man jury processthe writ used to summon jurors juslaw in the abstract or as a system, as distinguished from specific enactments jus gentium(Roman law)those rules of law common to all nations jus naturale(Roman law)(originally) a system of law based on fundamental ideas of right and wrong; natural law jus sanguinisjus solijusticethe administration of law according to prescribed and accepted principles justice courtan inferior court presided over by a justice of the peace justice of the peace(in Britain) a lay magistrate, appointed by the crown or acting ex officio, whose function is to preserve the peace in his or her area, try summarily such cases as are within his or her jurisdiction, and perform miscellaneous administrative duties justiciablejustices in eyre(English legal history)justifyjuvenile courta law court for cases involving young persons under a specified age, usually 18 years lachesnegligence or unreasonable delay in pursuing a legal remedy landany tract of ground capable of being owned as property, together with any buildings on it, extending above and below the surface lapsethe termination of some right, interest, or privilege, as by neglecting to exercise it or through failure of some contingency larcenythe taking of personal property without consent and with the intention of permanently depriving the owner of it; theft: in some states of the U.S., and formerly in England, larceny in which the value of the property equals or exceeds a specified amount is grand larceny, and larceny involving lesser amounts is petit (or petty) larceny Law Frencha set of Anglo-Norman terms used in English laws and law books Law Lords(in Britain) members of the House of Lords who sit as the highest court of appeal, although in theory the full House of Lords has this role law merchant(mercantile law)the body of rules and principles determining the rights and obligations of the parties to commercial transactions; commercial law lawsuita proceeding in a court of law brought by one party against another, esp a civil action law terman expression or word used in law lawyera member of the legal profession, esp a solicitor leaseholdland or property held under a lease leaseholdera person in possession of leasehold property legista person versed in the law letters of administrationa formal document nominating a specified person to take over, administer, and dispose of an estate when there is no executor to carry out the testator's will lex locithe law of the place lex non scriptathe unwritten law; common law lex scriptathe written law; statute law lex talionisthe law of revenge or retaliation libelthe publication of defamatory matter in permanent form, as by a written or printed statement, picture, etc liena right to retain possession of another's property pending discharge of a debt limitationa certain period of time, legally defined, within which an action, claim, etc, must be commenced lis pendensa suit pending in a court that concerns the title to land litigablelitiganta party to a lawsuit litigationthe act or process of bringing or contesting a legal action in court locus standithe right of a party to appear and be heard before a court magistratea public officer concerned with the administration of law magistrates' court or petty sessions(in England) a court of summary jurisdiction held before two or more justices of the peace or a stipendiary magistrate to deal with minor crimes, certain civil actions, and preliminary hearings maintenance(formerly unlawful) the interference in a legal action by a person having no interest in it, as by providing funds to continue the action malfeasancemalice the state of mind with which an act is committed and from which the intent to do wrong may be inferred managera person appointed by a court to carry on a business during receivership mandamusformerly a writ from, now an order of, a superior court commanding an inferior tribunal, public official, corporation, etc, to carry out a public duty mandate(Roman law, contract law)a contract of bailment under which the party entrusted with goods undertakes to perform gratuitously some service in respect of such goods manslaughterthe unlawful killing of one human being by another without malice aforethought manusthe authority of a husband over his wife mare clausummare liberuma sea open to navigation by shipping of all nations materialrelevant to the issue before court: applied esp to facts or testimony of much significance matterthat which makes up something, esp a physical object; material mayhem or maihemthe wilful and unlawful infliction of injury upon a person, esp (formerly) the injuring or removing of a limb rendering him less capable of defending himself against attack memoranduma short written summary of the terms of a transaction mens reaa criminal intention or knowledge that an act is wrong. It is assumed to be an ingredient of all criminal offences although some minor statutory offences are punishable irrespective of it mental disorder(in England, according to the Mental Health Act 1983) mental illness, arrested or incomplete development of mind, psychopathic disorder, or any other disorder or disability of the mind mental impairmentmergerthe extinguishment of an estate, interest, contract, right, offence, etc, by its absorption into a greater one meritsthe actual and intrinsic rights and wrongs of an issue, esp in a law case, as distinct from extraneous matters and technicalities mesneministerialmisadventureaccidental death not due to crime or negligence misethe issue in the obsolete writ of right misfeasancemisjoinderthe improper joining of parties as coplaintiffs or codefendants or of different causes of action in one suit mispleadingan error or omission in pleading mistriala trial made void because of some error, such as a defect in procedure misuseran abuse of some right, privilege, office, etc, such as one that may lead to its forfeiture mittimusa warrant of commitment to prison or a command to a jailer directing him to hold someone in prison monopolythe exclusive right or privilege granted to a person, company, etc, by the state to purchase, manufacture, use, or sell some commodity or to carry on trade in a specified country or area moral(of evidence, etc) based on a knowledge of the tendencies of human nature moratoriuma legally authorized postponement of the fulfilment of an obligation morganatic or left-handedmortgageethe party to a mortgage who makes the loan mortmain or (less commonly) dead handthe state or condition of lands, buildings, etc, held inalienably, as by an ecclesiastical or other corporation motionan application made to a judge or court for an order or ruling necessary to the conduct of legal proceedings moveable or movabledenoting or relating to personal property as opposed to realty munimentsthe title deeds and other documentary evidence relating to the title to land mutea person who refuses to plead when arraigned on indictment for an offence nakedNapoleonic Codenecessariesfood, clothing, etc, essential for the maintenance of a dependant in the condition of life to which he or she is accustomed negligencea civil wrong whereby a person or party is in breach of a legal duty of care to another which results in loss or injury to the claimant next friend(formerly) a person acting on behalf of an infant or other person under legal disability nisinisi prius (US history)a direction that a case be brought up to Westminster for trial before a single judge and a jury nolle prosequi, nol. pros., or nolle pros.an entry made on the court record when the plaintiff in a civil suit or prosecutor in a criminal prosecution undertakes not to continue the action or prosecution nolo contendere mainly US)a plea made by a defendant to a criminal charge having the same effect in those proceedings as a plea of guilty but not precluding him or her from denying the charge in a subsequent action nonagethe state of being under any of various ages at which a person may legally enter into certain transactions, such as the making of binding contracts, marrying, etc non compos mentisnot of sound mind; mentally incapable of handling one's own affairs nonfeasancea failure to act when under an obligation to do so nonjoinderthe failure to join as party to a suit a person who should have been included either as a plaintiff or as a defendant non liquetnon prosequitur or non pros.(formerly) a judgment in favour of a defendant when the plaintiff failed to take the necessary steps in an action within the time allowed nonsuitan order of a judge dismissing a suit when the plaintiff fails to show he or she has a good cause of action or fails to produce any evidence notary publica public official, usually a solicitor, who is legally authorized to administer oaths, attest and certify certain documents, etc not guiltynovationthe substitution of a new obligation for an old one by mutual agreement between the parties, esp of one debtor or creditor for another novel(Roman law)a new decree or an amendment to an existing statute nudelacking some essential legal requirement, esp supporting evidencenudum pactuman agreement made without consideration and void unless made under seal nuisancesomething unauthorized that is obnoxious or injurious to the community at large (public nuisance) or to an individual, esp in relation to his or her ownership or occupation of property (private nuisance) oatha solemn pronouncement to affirm the truth of a statement or to pledge a person to some course of action, often involving a sacred being or object as witness obiter dictuman observation by a judge on some point of law not directly in issue in the case before him or her and thus neither requiring a decision nor serving as a precedent, but nevertheless of persuasive authority obligationa legally enforceable agreement to perform some act, esp to pay money, for the benefit of another party oblivionan intentional overlooking, esp of political offences; amnesty; pardon obreptionthe obtaining of something, esp in Scots law a grant from the Crown, by giving false information obsceneobtaining by deceptionthe offence of dishonestly obtaining the property of another by some deception or misrepresentation of facts occupancythe possession and use of property by or without agreement and without any claim to ownership occupanta person who has possession of something, esp an estate, house, etc; tenant offer(contract law)a proposal made by one person that will create a binding contract if accepted unconditionally by the person to whom it is made Official Referee(in England) a circuit judge attached to the High Court who is empowered to try certain cases, esp where a detailed examination of accounts or other documents is involved onerousonomasticon, upon or under oathonus probandiopento make the opening statement in (a case before a court of law) openingthe preliminary statement made by counsel to the court or jury before adducing evidence in support of his or her case ordinarya judge who exercises jurisdiction in his own right overtoweltyoyer(English legal history)(formerly) the reading out loud of a document in court oyer and terminer(formerly) a commission issued to judges to try cases on assize. It became obsolete with the abolition of assizes and the setting up of crown courts in 1972 panela list of persons summoned for jury service paraphernalia(formerly) articles of personal property given to a married woman by her husband before or during marriage and regarded in law as her possessions over which she has some measure of control pardonrelease from punishment for an offence parol(formerly) the pleadings in an action when presented by word of mouth Particulars of Claim(in England) the first reading made by the claimant in a county court action, showing the facts upon which he or she relies in support of a claim and the relief asked for party the person or persons taking part in legal proceedings, such as plaintiff or prosecutor paterfamilias(Roman law)the head of a household having authority over its members peculium(Roman law)pecuniarypecuniary advantagefinancial advantage that is dishonestly obtained by deception and that constitutes a criminal offence pendente liteperceptionthe collection, receipt, or taking into possession of rents, crops, etc peremptorypersistent crueltyconduct causing fear of danger to the life or health of a spouse (used in matrimonial proceedings before magistrates) personalof or relating to movable property, such as money personal property or personaltymovable property, such as furniture or money petitpetitiona formal application in writing made to a court asking for some specific judicial action petitionerthe plaintiff in a divorce suit petit jury or petty jurya jury of 12 persons empanelled to determine the facts of a case and decide the issue pursuant to the direction of the court on points of law petit larceny or petty larcenypettyplace of safety order(in Britain) under the Children and Young Persons Act 1969, an order granted by a justice to a person or agency granting authority to detain a child or young person and take him or her to a place of safety for not more than 28 days, because of the child's actual or likely ill-treatment or neglect, etc plainta statement in writing of grounds of complaint made to a court of law and asking for redress of the grievance plaintiff(formerly) a person who brings a civil action in a court of law plea(in Scotland and formerly in England) a suit or action at law plea bargainingan agreement between the prosecution and defence, sometimes including the judge, in which the accused agrees to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return for more serious charges being dropped pleadpleadingthe act of presenting a case in court, as by a lawyer on behalf of his client pleadings(formerly) the formal written statements presented alternately by the claimant and defendant in a lawsuit setting out the respective matters relied upon portionport of entryan airport, harbour, etc, where customs officials are stationed to supervise the entry into and exit from a country of persons and merchandise possethe able-bodied men of a district assembled together and forming a group upon whom the sheriff may call for assistance in maintaining law and order posse comitatuspossessorypost-obita bond given by a borrower, payable after the death of a specified person, esp one given to a moneylender by an expectant heir promising to repay when his interest falls into possession prayera request contained in a petition to a court for the relief sought by the petitioner precedenta judicial decision that serves as an authority for deciding a later case precepta writ or warrant predisposepre-emptionthe purchase of or right to purchase property in advance of or in preference to others preferpreferencea prior right to payment, as of a dividend or share in the assets of a company in the event of liquidation premeditationpremises(in a deed, etc) the matters referred to previously; the aforesaid; the foregoing prescribeprescriptionthe uninterrupted possession of property over a stated period of time, after which a right or title is acquired (positive prescription) presentment mainly US)a statement on oath by a grand jury of something within their own knowledge or observation, esp the commission of an offence when the indictment has been laid before them presentsused in a deed or document to refer to itself presumepresumptionan inference of the truth of a fact from other facts proved, admitted, or judicially noticed preterition(Roman law)the failure of a testator to name one of his children in his will, thus invalidating it prima facieprimogeniturethe right of an eldest son to succeed to the estate of his ancestor to the exclusion of all others principala person who engages another to act as his agent private lawthe branch of law that deals with the rights and duties of private individuals and the relations between them private nuisanceprivilegethe right of a lawyer to refuse to divulge information obtained in confidence from a client privilegedprivitya legally recognized relationship existing between two parties, such as that between lessor and lessee and between the parties to a contract privya person in privity with another prize courta court having jurisdiction to determine how property captured at sea in wartime is to be distributed probable causereasonable grounds for holding a belief, esp such as will justify bringing legal proceedings against a person or will constitute a defence to a charge of malicious prosecution probatethe act or process of officially proving the authenticity and validity of a will proceedproceedingslegal action; litigation processthe whole proceedings in an action at law process-servera sheriff's officer who serves legal documents such as writs for appearance in court procurationthe appointment of an agent, procurator, or attorney procuratoryprohibitionan order of a superior court (in Britain the High Court) forbidding an inferior court to determine a matter outside its jurisdiction promisee(contract law)promisor(contract law)proofany evidence that establishes or helps to establish the truth, validity, quality, etc, of something property centrea service for buying and selling property, including conveyancing, provided by a group of local solicitors proponenta person who seeks probate of a will proposituspropound(English law)prosecuteprosecuting attorney (US)(in some states) an officer in a judicial district appointed to conduct criminal prosecutions on behalf of the state and people prosecutionthe institution and conduct of legal proceedings against a person prosecutora person who institutes or conducts legal proceedings, esp in a criminal court prothonotary or protonotary(formerly) a chief clerk in certain law courts proveprovocation(English criminal law)words or conduct that incite a person to attack another psychopathic disorderpublic defender (US)(in the US) a lawyer engaged at public expense to represent indigent defendants public lawa law that applies to the public of a state or nation public nuisancepublic prosecutoran official in charge of prosecuting important cases pupil(civil law)a boy under 14 or a girl under 12 who is in the care of a guardian pupillage(in England) the period spent by a newly called barrister in the chambers of a member of the bar pursuantpurviewquarter sessions(in England and Wales, formerly) a criminal court held four times a year before justices of the peace or a recorder, empowered to try all but the most serious offences and to hear appeals from petty sessions. Replaced in 1972 by crown courts queen's or king's evidencequestion of fact(English law)(in English law) that part of the issue before a court that is decided by the jury question of law(English law)(in English law) that part of the issue before a court that is decided by the judge quitclaima formal renunciation of any claim against a person or of a right to land quo warrantoa proceeding initiated to determine or (formerly) a writ demanding by what authority a person claims an office, franchise, or privilege realreal propertyimmovable property, esp land and buildings, including proprietary rights over land, such as mineral rights rebuttera defendant's pleading in reply to a claimant's surrejoinder recaptionthe process of taking back one's own wife, child, property, etc, without causing a breach of the peace receivershipthe condition of being administered by a receiver recitalthe preliminary statement in a deed showing the reason for its existence and leading up to and explaining the operative part recognizance or recognisancea bond entered into before a court or magistrate by which a person binds himself to do a specified act, as to appear in court on a stated day, keep the peace, or pay a debt recognizee or recogniseethe person to whom one entering into a recognizance is bound recognizor or recognisora person who enters into a recognizance recorder(in England and Wales) a barrister or solicitor of at least ten years' standing appointed to sit as a part-time judge in the crown court recouprecoverrecoverythe obtaining of a right, etc, by the judgment of a court recriminationa charge made by an accused against his accuser; countercharge re-examinereferencesomething referred, esp proceedings submitted to a referee in law refresher(English law)a fee, additional to that marked on the brief, paid to counsel in a case that lasts more than a day rejoinrejoinder(in pleading) the answer made by a defendant to the claimant's reply relationthe principle by which an act done at one time is regarded in law as having been done antecedently relator(English law, US law)a person who gives information upon which the attorney general brings an action releasethe surrender of a claim, right, title, etc, in favour of someone else reliefredress of a grievance or hardship remandthe sending of a prisoner or accused person back into custody (or sometimes admitting him or her to bail) to await trial or continuation of his or her trial remiseremissiona reduction of the term of a sentence of imprisonment, as for good conduct remitthe transfer of a case from one court or jurisdiction to another, esp from an appeal court to an inferior tribunal repetition(civil law)the recovery or repayment of money paid or received by mistake, as when the same bill has been paid twice replevinthe recovery of goods unlawfully taken, made subject to establishing the validity of the recovery in a legal action and returning the goods if the decision is adverse replevyto recover possession of (goods) by replevin replication(formerly) the plaintiff's reply to a defendant's answer or plea replyto answer a defendant's plea reporta written account of a case decided at law, giving the main points of the argument on each side, the court's findings, and the decision reached reportera person, esp a barrister, authorized to write official accounts of judicial proceedings representation(contract law)a statement of fact made by one party to induce another to enter into a contract reprievea postponement or remission of punishment, esp of a person condemned to death rescuethe forcible removal of a person from legal custody reservation res gestaeincidental facts and circumstances that are admissible in evidence because they introduce or explain the matter in issue residuaryresiduewhat is left of an estate after the discharge of debts and distribution of specific gifts res ipsa loquiturres judicata or res adjudicataa matter already adjudicated upon that cannot be raised again resolutiverespondenta person against whom a petition, esp in a divorce suit, or appeal is brought rest to finish the introduction of evidence in (a case) restitutionthe act of compensating for loss or injury by reverting as far as possible to the position before such injury occurred restraining order (US)an order issued by a civil court to a potential abuser to keep away from those named in the order restrictive covenanta covenant imposing a restriction on the use of land for the purpose of preserving the enjoyment or value of adjoining land retainretryreturna report by a bailiff or other officer on the outcome of a formal document such as a claim, summons, etc, issued by a court returnablereverseto revoke or set aside (a judgment, decree, etc); annul review to re-examine (a decision) judicially right of commonriota disturbance made by an unruly mob or (in law) three or more persons; tumult or uproar routa group of three or more people proceeding to commit an illegal act rulean authoritative regulation or direction concerning method or procedure, as for a court of law, legislative body, game, or other human institution or activity rulinga decision of someone in authority, such as a judge run to have legal force or effect: the lease runs for two more years salvo(in legal documents) a saving clause; reservation savingan exception or reservation scandala libellous action or statement schedulea list or inventory, usually supplementary to a contract, will, etc scienterscire facias (rare)a judicial writ founded upon some record, such as a judgment, letters patent, etc, requiring the person against whom it is brought to show cause why the record should not be enforced or annulled scriptan original or principal document secularize or seculariseself-defencethe right to defend one's person, family, or property against attack or threat of attack by the use of no more force than is reasonable self-executingsentencethe judgment formally pronounced upon a person convicted in criminal proceedings, esp the decision as to what punishment is to be imposed separation(family law)the cessation of cohabitation of a married couple, either by mutual agreement or under a decree of a court sequester or sequestratesequestration the sequestering of property serjeant at law, serjeant, sergeant at law, or sergeant(formerly in England) a barrister of a special rank, to which he was raised by a writ under the Great Seal servitudea burden attaching to an estate for the benefit of an adjoining estate or of some definite person sessionthe meeting of a court, legislature, judicial body, etc, for the execution of its function or the transaction of business settlementa conveyance, usually to trustees, of property to be enjoyed by several persons in succession settlorseverableseveralcapable of being dealt with separately; not sharedseverancethe division into separate parts of a joint estate, contract, etc signto write (one's name) as a signature to (a document, etc) in attestation, confirmation, ratification, etc signatorya person who has signed a document such as a treaty or contract or an organization, state, etc, on whose behalf such a document has been signed sinesine proleslanderdefamation in some transient form, as by spoken words, gestures, etc smart money (US)damages awarded to a plaintiff where the wrong was aggravated by fraud, malice, etc socage(English law)the tenure of land by certain services, esp of an agricultural nature soke(English legal history)the right to hold a local court solatium mainly US)compensation awarded to a party for injury to the feelings as distinct from physical suffering and pecuniary loss solehaving no wife or husbandsolemnitya formality necessary to validate a deed, act, contract, etc solicitor(in Britain) a lawyer who advises clients on matters of law, draws up legal documents, prepares cases for barristers, etc, and who may represent clients in certain courts solutionthe payment, discharge, or satisfaction of a claim, debt, etc sound to have the essential quality or nature (of) sound inspecial casean agreed written statement of facts submitted by litigants to a court for a decision on a point of law special pleadinga pleading that alleges new facts that offset those put forward by the other side rather than directly admitting or denying those facts specialtya formal contract or obligation expressed in a deed specific performancea remedy awarded by a court requiring a person to fulfil obligations under a contract where damages are an insufficient remedy spinsterspoliationthe material alteration of a document so as to render it invalid squatstalestand by(English law)(of the Crown) to challenge (a juror) without needing to show cause stand downto leave the witness box in a court of law after giving evidencestatementa declaration of matters of fact, esp in a pleading statement of claim(in England) the first pleading made by the claimant in a civil court action showing the facts upon which he or she relies in support of the claim and the relief asked for state's evidence (US)the evidence for the prosecution given on behalf of a state in a criminal prosecution statute lawa law enacted by a legislative body statutory declarationa declaration made under statutory authority before a justice of the peace or commissioner for oaths which may in certain cases be substituted for a statement on oath stillicidea right or duty relating to the drainage of water from the eaves of a roof onto adjacent land stipulate(Roman law)strangera person who is neither party nor privy to a transaction stultifysubmission an agreement by the parties to a dispute to refer the matter to arbitration subpoenaa writ issued by a court of justice requiring a person to appear before the court at a specified time subreption (rare)the concealment of facts in order to obtain a benefit, esp an ecclesiastical benefit or, in Scots law, a grant from the Crown subrogatesubrogationthe substitution of one person or thing for another, esp the placing of a surety who has paid the debt in the place of the creditor, entitling him or her to payment from the original debtor substantivesucceedsuesui jurissuitthe act or process of suing in a court of law suitora person who brings a suit in a court of law; plaintiff summaryshort and free from the complexities and delays of a full trial summary jurisdictionthe right a court has to adjudicate immediately upon some matter arising during its proceedings summary offencean offence that is triable in a magistrates' court summation(US law)the concluding statements made by opposing counsel in a case before a court summing-upa direction regarding the law and a summary of the evidence, given by a judge in his address to the jury before they retire to consider their verdict summonsan official order requiring a person to attend court, either to answer a charge or to give evidence suo juresuo locosurchargea charge in addition to the usual payment, tax, etc suretya person who assumes legal responsibility for the fulfilment of another's debt or obligation and himself becomes liable if the other defaults surplusage(in pleading, etc) irrelevant matter, such as a superfluous allegation surrebuttal(in pleading) the giving of evidence in support of a surrebutter surrebutter(in pleading) the claimant's reply to the defendant's rebutter surrejoinder(in pleading) the claimant's reply to the defendant's rejoinder surrenderthe yielding up or restoring of an estate, esp the giving up of a lease before its term has expired suspensiona postponement of execution of a sentence or the deferring of a judgment, etc swearswear inswear out (US)talesa group of persons summoned from among those present in court or from bystanders to fill vacancies on a jury panel tenancythe temporary possession or holding by a tenant of lands or property owned by another tenantrytenants collectively, esp those with the same landlord tenderto offer (money or goods) in settlement of a debt or claim tenorthe exact words of a deed, etc, as distinct from their effect term(formerly) a period of time during which sessions of courts of law were held termor or termera person who holds an estate for a term of years or until he dies territorial court (US)testamenta will setting out the disposition of personal property (esp in the phrase last will and testament) testamentarytestatea person who dies testate testifytestimonyevidence given by a witness, esp orally in court under oath or affirmation thinga law court or public assembly in the Scandinavian countries third partya person who is involved by chance or only incidentally in a legal proceeding, agreement, or other transaction, esp one against whom a defendant claims indemnity time immemorialtipstaffa court official having miscellaneous duties, mostly concerned with the maintenance of order in court titlethe heading or a division of a statute, book of law, etc torta civil wrong arising from an act or failure to act, independently of any contract, for which an action for personal injury or property damages may be brought tort-feasora person guilty of tort tortioustraffic courta magistrates' court dealing with traffic offences transferthe passing of title to property or other right from one person to another by act of the parties or by operation of law; conveyance transitory actionan action that can be brought in any country regardless of where it originated traversethe formal denial of a fact alleged in the opposite party's pleading treasure-trovetrespassany unlawful act committed with force or violence, actual or implied, which causes injury to another person, his property, or his rights triabletrialthe judicial examination of the issues in a civil or criminal cause by a competent tribunal and the determination of these issues in accordance with the law of the land trial courtthe first court before which the facts of a case are decided tribunala court of justice or any place where justice is administered trover(formerly) the act of wrongfully assuming proprietary rights over personal goods or property belonging to another tryto examine and determine the issues involved in (a cause) in a court of lawl udala form of freehold possession of land existing in northern Europe before the introduction of the feudal system and still used in Orkney and Shetland ultimogeniturea principle of inheritance whereby the youngest son succeeds to the estate of his ancestor ultra viresunalienableunappealableunavoidableuncovenantedunilateralunincorporatedunlawful assemblya meeting of three or more people with the intent of carrying out any unlawful purpose unreasonable behaviourconduct by a spouse sufficient to cause the irretrievable breakdown of a marriage unwritten lawthe law based upon custom, usage, and judicial decisions, as distinguished from the enactments of a legislature, orders or decrees in writing, etc usethe beneficial enjoyment of property the legal title to which is held by another person as trustee userthe continued exercise, use, or enjoyment of a right, esp in property utter barristerthe full title of a barrister who is not a Queen's Counsel vacantvacatevariancea difference or discrepancy between two steps in a legal proceeding, esp between a statement in a pleading and the evidence given to support it vendeea person to whom something, esp real property, is sold; buyer vendora person who sells something, esp real property venire facias(formerly) a writ directing a sheriff to summon suitable persons to form a jury venireman (US)(in the US and formerly in England) a person summoned for jury service under a venire facias venuethe place in which a cause of action arises verdictthe findings of a jury on the issues of fact submitted to it for examination and trial; judgment verification(formerly) a short affidavit at the end of a pleading stating the pleader's readiness to prove his assertions verifyversusvestureeverything except trees that grows on the land vexatiousviewa formal inspection by a jury of the place where an alleged crime was committed viewera person appointed by a court to inspect and report upon property, etc vindicate(Roman law)vindictive(English law)vitiatevoidablevoir direthe preliminary examination on oath of a proposed witness by the judge voluntaryacting or done without legal obligation, compulsion, or persuasion voluntary arrangementa procedure enabling an insolvent company to come to an arrangement with its creditors and resolve its financial problems, often in compliance with a court order volunteera person who does some act or enters into a transaction without being under any legal obligation to do so and without being promised any remuneration for his or her services voucher (obsolete, English law) the summoning into court of a person to warrant a title to property wager of law(English legal history)waif (obsolete)waivewaiverthe voluntary relinquishment, expressly or by implication, of some claim or right ward of courta person, esp a minor or one legally incapable of managing his own affairs, placed under the control or protection of a guardian or of a court warrantan authorization issued by a magistrate or other official allowing a constable or other officer to search or seize property, arrest a person, or perform some other specified act warranty(contract law, insurance law)an express or implied term in a contract, such as an undertaking that goods contracted to be sold shall meet specified requirements as to quality, etc wastereduction in the value of an estate caused by act or neglect, esp by a life-tenant willthe declaration of a person's wishes regarding the disposal of his or her property after death witnessa person who testifies, esp in a court of law, to events or facts within his or her own knowledge without prejudicewrit(formerly) a document under seal, issued in the name of the Crown or a court, commanding the person to whom it is addressed to do or refrain from doing some specified act writ of executiona writ ordering that a judgment be enforced wrongan infringement of another person's rights, rendering the offender liable to a civil action, as for breach of contract or tort year and a day(English law) ▷ See law
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