Synonyms of 'geography: Geography terms and features'
afforestationantipodesarêtea sharp ridge separating two cirques or glacial valleys in mountainous regions atlasa collection of maps, usually in book form atmospherethe gaseous envelope surrounding the earth or any other celestial body atolla circular coral reef or string of coral islands surrounding a lagoon basinbaya wide semicircular indentation of a shoreline, esp between two headlands or peninsulas beachcanyoncliffclimatethe long-term prevalent weather conditions of an area, determined by latitude, position relative to oceans or continents, altitude, etc colthe lowest point of a ridge connecting two mountain peaks, often constituting a pass conservationprotection, preservation, and careful management of natural resources and of the environment continentthat part of the earth's crust that rises above the oceans and is composed of sialic rocks. Including the continental shelves, the continents occupy 30 per cent of the earth's surface continental driftthe theory that the earth's continents move gradually over the surface of the planet on a substratum of magma. The present-day configuration of the continents is thought to be the result of the fragmentation of a single landmass, Pangaea, that existed 200 million years ago continental shelfthe sea bed surrounding a continent at depths of up to about 200 metres (100 fathoms), at the edge of which the continental slope drops steeply to the ocean floor contourconurbationcoombecoral reefa marine ridge or reef consisting of coral and other organic material consolidated into limestone corethe central part of the earth, beneath the mantle, consisting mainly of iron and nickel, which has an inner solid part surrounded by an outer liquid part corrie, cirque, or cwma semicircular or crescent-shaped basin with steep sides and a gently sloping floor formed in mountainous regions by the erosive action of a glacier cragcraterthe bowl-shaped opening at the top or side of a volcano or top of a geyser through which lava and gases are emitted crevassea deep crack or fissure, esp in the ice of a glacier crustthe solid outer shell of the earth, with an average thickness of 30–35 km in continental regions and 5 km beneath the oceans, forming the upper part of the lithosphere and lying immediately above the mantle, from which it is separated by the Mohorovičić discontinuity culvertdeforestationdeltadeserta region that is devoid or almost devoid of vegetation, esp because of low rainfall desertificationa process by which fertile land turns into barren land or desert dormitorydenoting or relating to an area from which most of the residents commute to work (esp in the phrase dormitory suburb) dykea ditch or watercourse earthquakea sudden release of energy in the earth's crust or upper mantle, usually caused by movement along a fault plane or by volcanic activity and resulting in the generation of seismic waves which can be destructive eastingsenvironmentepicentrethe point on the earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake or underground nuclear explosion equatorthe great circle of the earth with a latitude of 0°, lying equidistant from the poles; dividing the N and S hemispheres erosionescarpmentthe long continuous steep face of a ridge or plateau formed by erosion; scarp estuaryfaulta fracture in the earth's crust resulting in the relative displacement and loss of continuity of the rocks on either side of it fellfjord(esp on the coast of Norway) a long narrow inlet of the sea between high steep cliffs formed by glacial action flood plainglaciationglaciergladeglenglobal warmingan increase in the average temperature worldwide believed to be caused by the greenhouse effect green beltgreenhouse effectthe application of this effect to a planet's atmosphere; carbon dioxide and some other gases in the planet's atmosphere can absorb the infrared radiation emitted by the planet's surface as a result of exposure to solar radiation, thus increasing the mean temperature of the planet grid referencea method of locating a point on a map or plan by a number referring to the lines of a grid drawn upon the map or plan and to subdivisions of the space between the lines hanging valleya tributary valley entering a main valley at a much higher level because of overdeepening of the main valley, esp by glacial erosion headlandice capinfrastructureInternational Date Lineirrigationisobara line on a map connecting places of equal atmospheric pressure, usually reduced to sea level for purposes of comparison, at a given time or period isobatha line on a map connecting points of equal underwater depth isohyeta line on a map connecting places having equal rainfall isotherma line on a map linking places of equal temperature isthmusjunglelagoona body of water cut off from the open sea by coral reefs or sand bars latitudean angular distance in degrees north or south of the equator (latitude 0°), equal to the angle subtended at the centre of the globe by the meridian between the equator and the point in question levéelocha long narrow bay or arm of the sea in Scotland longitudelongshore driftthe process whereby beach material is gradually shifted laterally as a result of waves meeting the shore at an oblique angle mantlethe part of the earth between the crust and the core, accounting for more than 82% of the earth's volume (but only 68% of its mass) and thought to be composed largely of peridotite mapa diagrammatic representation of the earth's surface or part of it, showing the geographical distributions, positions, etc, of natural or artificial features such as roads, towns, relief, rainfall, etc meanderMercator projectionan orthomorphic map projection on which parallels and meridians form a rectangular grid, scale being exaggerated with increasing distance from the equator morainea mass of debris, carried by glaciers and forming ridges and mounds when deposited new townnorthern hemispherethat half of the globe lying north of the equator northingsNorth Polethe northernmost point on the earth's axis, at a latitude of 90°N occidentaloceanOrdnance Surveythe official map-making body of the British or Irish government orientalozone layerpermafrostplate tectonicsthe study of the structure of the earth's crust and mantle with reference to the theory that the earth's lithosphere is divided into large rigid blocks (plates) that are floating on semifluid rock and are thus able to interact with each other at their boundaries, and to the associated theories of continental drift and seafloor spreading pollutionharmful or poisonous substances introduced into an environment precipitationrain, snow, sleet, dew, etc, formed by condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere rainforestrain shadowreefa ridge of rock, sand, coral, etc, the top of which lies close to the surface of the sea relief mapa map that shows the configuration and height of the land surface, usually by means of contours ridgea long narrow raised land formation with sloping sides esp one formed by the meeting of two faces of a mountain or of a mountain buttress or spur rift valleya long narrow valley resulting from the subsidence of land between two parallel faults, often associated with volcanism. The East African Rift Valley is an example rilla brook or stream; rivulet river basinrivuletsalt flatsalt lakesandbanksand barsand dunea hill of sand in a desert or near the sea savanna or savannahscreean accumulation of weathered rock fragments at the foot of a cliff or hillside, often forming a sloping heap sierrasnow linesouthern hemispherethat half of the earth lying south of the equator South Polethe southernmost point on the earth's axis, at the latitude of 90°S spitan elongated often hooked strip of sand or shingle projecting from the shore, deposited by longshore drift, and usually above water springspura ridge projecting laterally from a mountain or mountain range stacksteppesubsoilsuburbtarntemperateThird Worldtopsoiltortropicstsunamia large, often destructive, sea wave produced by a submarine earthquake, subsidence, or volcanic eruption. Sometimes incorrectly called a tidal wave tundraa vast treeless zone lying between the ice cap and the timberline of North America and Eurasia and having a permanently frozen subsoil urbanizationveld or veldtvolcanoan opening in the earth's crust from which molten lava, rock fragments, ashes, dust, and gases are ejected from below the earth's surface wadia watercourse in N Africa and Arabia, dry except in the rainy season watercoursewater cyclethe circulation of the earth's water, in which water evaporates from the sea into the atmosphere, where it condenses and falls as rain or snow, returning to the sea by rivers or returning to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration waterfallwatershedthe dividing line between two adjacent river systems, such as a ridge water tablethe surface of the water-saturated part of the ground, usually following approximately the contours of the overlying land surface weatheringwetlandwhirlpoola powerful circular current or vortex of water, usually produced by conflicting tidal currents or by eddying at the foot of a waterfall ▷ See geography
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Word List of geography: Geography terms and features from the Collins English Word Lists