Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emiratesa sheikhdom (emirate) of SE Arabia, on the S coast of the Persian Gulf: the chief sheikhdom and capital of the United Arab Emirates, consisting principally of the port of Abu Dhabi and a desert hinterland; contains major oilfields. Pop: 476 000 (2005 est). Area: 67 350 sq km (25 998 sq miles) AbujaNigeriathe federal capital of Nigeria, in the centre of the country. Pop: 467 000 (2005 est) AccraGhanathe capital of Ghana, a port on the Gulf of Guinea: built on the site of three 17th-century trading fortresses founded by the English, Dutch, and Danish. Pop: 1 970 000 (2005 est) Addis AbabaEthiopiathe capital of Ethiopia, on a central plateau 2400 m (8000 ft) above sea level: founded in 1887; became capital in 1896. Pop: 2 899 000 (2005 est) AlgiersAlgeriathe capital of Algeria, an ancient port on the Mediterranean; until 1830 a centre of piracy. Pop: 3 260 000 (2005 est) AmmanJordanthe capital of Jordan, northeast of the Dead Sea: ancient capital of the Ammonites, rebuilt by Ptolemy in the 3rd century bc. Pop: 1 292 000 (2005 est) AmsterdamNetherlandsthe commercial capital of the Netherlands, a major industrial centre and port on the IJsselmeer, connected with the North Sea by canal: built on about 100 islands within a network of canals. Pop: 737 000 (2003 est) Andorra la VellaAndorrathe capital of Andorra, situated in the west of the principality. Pop: 22 035 (2003 est) AnkaraTurkeythe capital of Turkey: an ancient city in the Anatolian highlands: first a capital in the 3rd century bc, in the Celtic kingdom of Galatia. Pop: 3 593 000 (2005 est) AntananarivoMadagascarthe capital of Madagascar, on the central plateau: founded in the 17th century by a Hova chief; university (1961). Pop: 1 808 000 (2005 est) ApiaSamoathe capital of (Western) Samoa: a port on the N coast of Upolu. Pop: 41 000 (2005 est) AshkhabadTurkmenistanthe capital of Turkmenistan. Pop: 598 000 (2005 est) AsmaraEritreathe capital of Eritrea; cathedral (1922); Grand Mosque (1937); university (1958). Pop: 615 000 (2005 est) AsunciónParaguaythe capital and chief port of Paraguay, on the Paraguay River, 1530 km (950 miles) from the Atlantic. Pop: 1 750 000 (2005 est) AstanaKazakhstanthe capital of Kazakhstan, in the N of the country; replaced Almaty as capital in 1997; an important railway junction. Pop: 335 000 (2005 est) AthensGreecethe capital of Greece, in the southeast near the Saronic Gulf: became capital after independence in 1834; ancient city-state, most powerful in the 5th century bc; contains the hill citadel of the Acropolis. Pop: 3 238 000 (2005 est) BaghdadIraqthe capital of Iraq, on the River Tigris: capital of the Abbasid Caliphate (762–1258). Pop: 5 910 000 (2005 est) BakuAzerbaijanthe capital of Azerbaijan, a port on the Caspian Sea: important for its extensive oilfields. Pop: 1 830 000 (2005 est) BamakoMalithe capital of Mali, in the south, on the River Niger. Pop: 1 379 000 (2005 est) Bandar Seri BegawanBruneithe capital of Brunei. Pop: 64 000 (2005 est) BangkokThailandthe capital and chief port of Thailand, on the Chao Phraya River: became a royal city and the capital in 1782. Pop: 6 604 000 (2005 est) BanguiCentral African Republicthe capital of the Central African Republic, in the south part, on the Ubangi River. Pop: 732 000 (2005 est) BanjulGambiathe capital of The Gambia, a port at the mouth of the Gambia River. Pop: 392 000 (2005 est) BasseterreSt. Kitts and Nevisa port in the Caribbean, on St Kitts in the Leeward Islands: the capital of St Kitts-Nevis. Pop: 13 220 (2001) BeijingPeople's Republic of Chinathe capital of the People's Republic of China, in the northeast in Beijing municipality (traditionally in Hebei province); the country's second largest city: dates back to the 12th century bc; consists of two central walled cities, the Outer City (containing the commercial quarter) and the Inner City, which contains the Imperial City, within which is the Purple or Forbidden City; many universities. Pop: 10 849 000 (2005 est) Beirut or BeyrouthLebanonthe capital of Lebanon, a port on the Mediterranean: part of the Ottoman Empire from the 16th century until 1918; many universities (including Lebanese, American, French, and Arab). Pop: 1 875 000 (2005 est) BelfastNorthern Irelandthe capital of Northern Ireland, a port on Belfast Lough in Belfast district, Co Antrim and Co Down: became the centre of Irish Protestantism and of the linen industry in the 17th century; seat of the Northern Ireland assembly and executive. Pop: 281 000 (2011 est) BelgradeSerbiathe capital of Serbia, in the E part at the confluence of the Danube and Sava Rivers: became the capital of Serbia in 1878, of Yugoslavia in 1929, and later of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006). Pop: 1 280 639 (2002) BelmopanBelize(since 1973) the capital of Belize, about 50 miles inland: founded in 1970. Pop: 10 000 (2005 est) BerlinGermanythe capital of Germany (1871–1945 and from 1990), formerly divided (1945–90) into the eastern sector, capital of East Germany, and the western sectors, which formed an exclave in East German territory closely affiliated with West Germany: a wall dividing the sectors was built in 1961 by the East German authorities to stop the flow of refugees from east to west; demolition of the wall began in 1989 and the city was formally reunited in 1990: formerly (1618–1871) the capital of Brandenburg and Prussia. Pop: 3 388 477 (2003 est) BerneSwitzerlandthe capital of Switzerland, in the W part, on the Aar River: entered the Swiss confederation in 1353 and became the capital in 1848. Pop: 122 700 (2002 est) BishkekKyrgyzstanthe capital of Kyrgyzstan. Pop: 828 000 (2005 est) BissauGuinea-Bissaua port on the Atlantic, the capital of Guinea-Bissau (until 1974 Portuguese Guinea). Pop: 369 000 (2005 est) BloemfonteinSouth Africaa city in central South Africa: capital of Free State province and judicial capital of the country. Pop: 111 698 (2001) BogotáColombiathe capital of Colombia, on a central plateau of the E Andes: originally the centre of Chibcha civilization; founded as a city in 1538 by the Spaniards. Pop: 7 594 000 (2005 est) BrasíliaBrazilthe capital of Brazil (since 1960), on the central plateau: the former capital was Rio de Janeiro. Pop: 3 341 000 (2005 est) BratislavaSlovakiathe capital of Slovakia since 1918, a port on the River Danube; capital of Hungary (1541–1784) and seat of the Hungarian parliament until 1848. Pop: 428 672 (2001) BrazzavilleCongo (Republic of)the capital of Congo-Brazzaville, in the south on the River Congo. Pop: 1 153 000 (2005 est) BridgetownBarbadosthe capital of Barbados, a port on the SW coast. Pop: 144 000 (2005 est) BrusselsBelgiumthe capital of Belgium, in the central part: became capital of Belgium in 1830; seat of the European Commission. Pop: 999 899 (2004 est) BucharestRomaniathe capital of Romania, in the southeast. Pop: 1 764 000 (2005 est) BudapestHungarythe capital of Hungary, on the River Danube: formed in 1873 from the towns of Buda and Pest. Traditionally Buda, the old Magyar capital, was the administrative and Pest the trade centre: suffered severely in the Russian siege of 1945 and in the unsuccessful revolt against the Communist regime (1956). Pop: 1 719 342 (2003 est) Buenos AiresArgentinathe capital of Argentina, a major port and industrial city on the Río de la Plata estuary: became capital in 1880; university (1821). Pop: 13 349 000 (2005 est) BujumburaBurundithe capital of Burundi, a port at the NE end of Lake Tanganyika. Pop: 419 000 (2005 est) CairoEgyptthe capital of Egypt, on the Nile: the largest city in Africa and in the Middle East; industrial centre; site of the university and mosque of Al Azhar (founded in 972). Pop: 11 146 000 (2005 est) CanberraAustraliathe capital of Australia, in Australian Capital Territory: founded in 1913 as a planned capital. Pop: 345 257 (2008) Cape TownSouth Africathe legislative capital of South Africa and capital of Western Cape province, situated in the southwest on Table Bay: founded in 1652, the first White settlement in southern Africa; important port. Pop: 3 740 026 (2011) CaracasVenezuelathe capital of Venezuela, in the north: founded in 1567; major industrial and commercial centre, notably for oil companies. Pop: 3 276 000 (2005 est) CardiffWalesthe capital of Wales, situated in the southeast, in Cardiff county borough: formerly an important port; seat of the Welsh assembly (1999); university (1883). Pop: 346 100 (2011) CastriesSt. Luciathe capital and chief port of St Lucia. Pop: 14 000 (2005 est) CayenneFrench Guianathe capital of French Guiana, on an island at the mouth of the Cayenne River: French penal settlement from 1854 to 1938. Pop: 57 229 (2011) ColomboSri Lankathe administrative capital and chief port of Sri Lanka, on the W coast, with one of the largest artificial harbours in the world. Pop: 653 000 (2005 est) Conakry or KonakryGuineathe capital of Guinea, a port on the island of Tombo. Pop: 1 465 000 (2005 est) CopenhagenDenmarkthe capital of Denmark, a port on Zealand and the Amager Islands on a site inhabited for some 6000 years: exports chiefly agricultural products; iron and steel works; university (1479). Pop: 501 664 (2004 est) DakarSenegalthe capital and chief port of Senegal, on the SE side of Cape Verde peninsula. Pop: 2 313 000 (2005 est) DamascusSyriathe capital of Syria, in the southwest: reputedly the oldest city in the world, having been inhabited continuously since before 2000 bc. Pop: 2 317 000 (2005 est) DelhiIndiathe capital of India, in the N central part, on the Jumna river: consists of Old Delhi (a walled city reconstructed in 1639 on the site of former cities of Delhi, which date from the 15th century bc) and New Delhi to the south, chosen as the capital in 1912, replacing Kolkata (then called Calcutta); university (1922). Pop: 9 817 439 (2001) Dhaka or DaccaBangladeshthe capital of Bangladesh, in the E central part: capital of Bengal (1608–39; 1660–1704) and of East Pakistan (1949–71); jute and cotton mills; university (1921). Pop: 12 560 000 (2005 est) DiliTimor-Lestethe capital (from 2002) of independent Timor-Leste: the former capital (until 1976) of Portuguese Timor. Pop: 50 000 (2005 est) Djibouti or JiboutiDjibouti or Jiboutithe capital of Djibouti, a port on the Gulf of Aden: an outlet for Ethiopian goods. Pop: 523 000 (2005 est) DodomaTanzaniaa city in central Tanzania, the official capital of the country. Pop: 169 000 (2005 est) DohaQatarthe capital and chief port of Qatar, on the E coast of the peninsula. Pop: 370 000 (2002 est) DublinRepublic of Irelandthe capital of the Republic of Ireland, on Dublin Bay: under English rule from 1171 until 1922; commercial and cultural centre; contains one of the world's largest breweries and exports whiskey, stout, and agricultural produce. Pop: 1 004 614 (2002) DushanbeTajikistanthe capital of Tajikistan; a cultural centre. Pop: 551 000 (2005 est) EdinburghScotlandthe capital of Scotland and seat of the Scottish Parliament (from 1999), in City of Edinburgh council area on the S side of the Firth of Forth: became the capital in the 15th century; castle; three universities (including University of Edinburgh, 1583); commercial and cultural centre, noted for its annual festival. Pop: 482 640 (2012) Fort-de-FranceMartiniquethe capital of Martinique, a port on the W coast: commercial centre of the French Antilles. Pop: 91 249 (2007) FreetownSierra Leonethe capital and chief port of Sierra Leone: founded in 1787 for slaves freed and destitute in England. Pop: 1 007 000 (2005 est) FunafutiTuvaluGaboroneBotswanathe capital of Botswana (since 1964), in the extreme southeast. Pop: 186 007 (2001) GeorgetownGuyanathe capital and chief port of Guyana, at the mouth of the Demerara River: became capital of the Dutch colonies of Essequibo and Demerara in 1784; seat of the University of Guyana. Pop: 237 000 (2005 est) Guatemala CityGuatemalathe capital of Guatemala, in the southeast: founded in 1776 to replace the former capital, Antigua Guatemala, after an earthquake; university (1676). Pop: 982 000 (2005 est) HanoiVietnamthe capital of Vietnam, on the Red River: became capital of Tonkin in 1802, of French Indochina in 1887, of Vietnam in 1945, and of North Vietnam (1954–75); university (1917); industrial centre. Pop: 4 147 000 (2005 est) HarareZimbabwethe capital of Zimbabwe, in the northeast: University of Zimbabwe (1957); industrial and commercial centre. Pop: 1 527 000 (2005 est) HavanaCubathe capital of Cuba, a port in the northwest on the Gulf of Mexico: the largest city in the Caribbean; founded in 1514 as San Cristóbal de la Habana by Diego Velásquez. Pop: 2 192 000 (2005 est) HelsinkiFinlandthe capital of Finland, a port in the south on the Gulf of Finland: founded by Gustavus I of Sweden in 1550; replaced Turku as capital in 1812, while under Russian rule; university. Pop: 559 330 (2003 est) HoniaraSolomon Islandsthe capital of the Solomon Islands, on NW Guadalcanal Island. Pop: 61 000 (2005 est) IslamabadPakistanthe capital of Pakistan, in the north on the Potwar Plateau: site chosen in 1959; surrounded by the Capital Territory of Islamabad for 909 sq km (351 sq miles). Pop: 770 000 (2005 est) Jakarta or DjakartaIndonesiathe capital of Indonesia, in N West Java: founded in 1619 and ruled by the Dutch until 1945; the chief trading centre of the East in the 17th century; University of Indonesia (1947). Pop: 8 347 083 (2000) JerusalemIsraelJubaSouth Sudanthe capital of South Sudan, on the White Nile river. Pop: 250 000 (2006 est) KabulAfghanistanthe capital of Afghanistan, in the northeast of the country at an altitude of 1800 m (5900 ft) on the Kabul River: over 3000 years old, with a strategic position commanding passes through the Hindu Kush and main routes to the Khyber Pass; destroyed and rebuilt many times; capital of the Mogul Empire from 1504 until 1738 and of Afghanistan from 1773; university (1932). Pop: 3 288 000 (2005 est) KampalaUgandathe capital and largest city of Uganda, in Central region on Lake Victoria: Makerere University (1961). Pop: 1 208 544 (2002 est) Katmandu or KathmanduNepalthe capital of Nepal, in the east at the confluence of the Baghmati and Vishnumati Rivers. Pop: 814 000 (2005 est) Khartoum or KhartumSudanthe capital of Sudan, at the junction of the Blue and the White Nile: with adjoining Khartoum North and Omdurman, the largest conurbation in the country; destroyed by the Mahdists in 1885 when General Gordon was killed; seat of the Anglo-Egyptian government of Sudan until 1954, then capital of the new republic. Pop: 4 495 000 (2005 est) KievUkrainethe capital of Ukraine, on the Dnieper River: formed the first Russian state by the late 9th century; university (1834). Pop: 2 623 000 (2005 est) KigaliRwandathe capital of Rwanda, in the central part. Pop: 782 000 (2005 est) KingstonJamaicathe capital and chief port of Jamaica, on the SE coast: University of the West Indies. Pop: 574 000 (2005 est) KingstownSt. Vincent and the Grenadinesthe capital of St Vincent and the Grenadines: a port and resort. p.: 31 000 (2005 est) KinshasaCongo (Democratic Republic of)the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, on the River Congo opposite Brazzaville: became capital of the Belgian Congo in 1929 and of Zaïre in 1960; university (1954). Pop: 5 717 000 (2005 est) KishinevMoldovaKuala LumpurMalaysiaa city in Malaysia, in the SW Malay Peninsula: formerly (until 1999) the capital of Malaysia; became capital of the Federated Malay States in 1895, and of Malaysia in 1963; capital of Selangor state from 1880 to 1973, when it was made a federal territory. Pop: 1 392 000 (2005 est) KuwaitKuwaitthe capital of Kuwait: a port on the Persian Gulf. Pop: 1 225 000 (2005 est) La PazBoliviaa city in W Bolivia, at an altitude of 3600 m (12 000 ft): seat of government since 1898 (though Sucre is still the official capital); the country's largest city; founded in 1548 by the Spaniards; university (1830). Pop: 1 533 000 (2005 est) LibrevilleGabonthe capital of Gabon, in the west on the estuary of the Gabon River: founded as a French trading post in 1843 and expanded with the settlement of freed slaves in 1848. Pop: 649 000 (2005 est) LilongweMalawithe capital of Malawi, in the central part west of Lake Malawi. Pop: 655 000 (2005 est) LimaPeruthe capital of Peru, near the Pacific coast on the Rímac River: the centre of Spanish colonization in South America; university founded in 1551 (the oldest in South America); an industrial centre with a port at nearby Callao. Pop: 8 180 000 (2005 est) LisbonPortugalthe capital and chief port of Portugal, in the southwest on the Tagus estuary: became capital in 1256; subject to earthquakes and severely damaged in 1755; university (1911). Pop: 1 892 891 (2001) LjubljanaSloveniathe capital of Slovenia: capital of Illyria (1816–49); part of Yugoslavia (1918–91); university (1595). Pop: 265 881 (2002) LoméTogothe capital and chief port of Togo, on the Bight of Benin. Pop: 865 000 (2005 est) LondonUnited Kingdomthe capital of the United Kingdom, a port in S England on the River Thames near its estuary on the North Sea: consists of the City (the financial quarter), the West End (the entertainment and major shopping centre), the East End (the industrial and former dock area), and extensive suburbs LuandaAngolathe capital of Angola, a port in the west, on the Atlantic: founded in 1576, it became a centre of the slave trade to Brazil in the 17th and 18th centuries; oil refining. Pop: 2 839 000 (2005 est) LusakaZambiathe capital of Zambia, in the southeast at an altitude of 1280 m (4200 ft): became capital of Northern Rhodesia in 1932 and of Zambia in 1964; University of Zambia (1966). Pop: 1 450 000 (2005 est) LuxembourgLuxembourgthe capital of Luxembourg, on the Alzette River: an industrial centre. Pop: 77 300 (2003 est) MadridSpainthe capital of Spain, situated centrally in New Castile: the highest European capital, at an altitude of about 700 m (2300 ft); a Moorish fortress in the 10th century, captured by Castile in 1083 and made capital of Spain in 1561; university (1836). Pop: 3 092 759 (2003 est) MajuroMarshall IslandsMalaboEquatorial Guineathe capital and chief port of Equatorial Guinea, on the island of Bioko in the Gulf of Guinea. Pop: 105 000 (2005 est) MaléMaldivesthe capital of the Republic of Maldives, on Malé Island in the centre of the island group. Pop: 90 000 (2005 est) ManaguaNicaraguathe capital of Nicaragua, on the S shore of Lake Managua: chosen as capital in 1857. Pop: 1 159 000 (2005 est) ManamaBahrainthe capital of Bahrain, at the N end of Bahrain Island: transit port. Pop: 142 000 (2005 est) ManilaPhilippinesthe chief port of the Philippines, on S Luzon on Manila Bay: capital of the republic until 1948 and from 1976; seat of the Far Eastern University and the University of Santo Tomas (1611). Pop: 10 677 000 (2005 est) MaputoMozambiquethe capital and chief port of Mozambique, in the south on Delagoa Bay: became capital in 1907; the nearest port to the Rand gold-mining and industrial region of South Africa. Pop: 1 316 000 (2005 est) MaseruLesothothe capital of Lesotho, in the northwest near the W border with South Africa; established as capital of Basutoland in 1869. Pop: 175 000 (2005 est) MbabaneSwazilandthe capital of Swaziland, in the northwest: administrative and financial centre, with a large iron mine nearby. Pop: 71 000 (2005 est) Mexico CityMexicothe capital of Mexico, on the central plateau at an altitude of 2240 m (7350 ft): founded as the Aztec capital (Tenochtitlán) in about 1300; conquered and rebuilt by the Spanish in 1521; forms, with its suburbs, the federal district of Mexico; the largest industrial complex in the country. Pop: 19 013 000 (2005 est) MinskBelarusthe capital of Belarus: an industrial city and educational and cultural centre, with a university (1921). Pop: 1 709 000 (2005 est) MogadishuSomaliathe capital and chief port of Somalia, on the Indian Ocean: founded by Arabs around the 10th century; taken by the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1871 and sold to Italy in 1905. Pop: 1 257 000 (2005 est) Monaco-VilleMonacoMonroviaLiberiathe capital and chief port of Liberia, on the Atlantic: founded in 1822 as a home for freed American slaves; University of Liberia (1862). Pop: 614 000 (2005 est) MontevideoUruguaythe capital and chief port of Uruguay, in the south on the Río de la Plata estuary: the largest city in the country: University of the Republic (1849); resort. Pop: 1 378 707 (1996) MoroniComorosthe capital of the Comoros, on the island of Njazidja (Grande Comore). Pop: 59 000 (2005 est) MoscowRussiathe capital of Russia and of the Moscow Autonomous Region, on the Moskva River: dates from the 11th century; capital of the grand duchy of Russia from 1547 to 1712; capital of the Soviet Union 1918–91; centres on the medieval Kremlin; chief political, cultural, and industrial centre of Russia, with two universities. Pop: 10 672 000 (2005 est) MuscatOmanthe capital of the Sultanate of Oman, a port on the Gulf of Oman: a Portuguese port from the early 16th century; controlled by Persia (1650–1741). Pop: 689 000 (2005 est) NairobiKenyathe capital of Kenya, in the southwest, at an altitude of 1650 m (5500 ft): founded in 1899; became capital in 1905; commercial and industrial centre; the Nairobi National Park (a game reserve) is nearby. Pop: 2 818 000 (2005 est) NassauBahamasthe capital and chief port of the Bahamas, on the NE coast of New Providence Island: resort. Pop: 229 000 (2005 est) NdjamenaChadthe capital of Chad, in the southwest, at the confluence of the Shari and Logone Rivers: trading centre for livestock. Pop: 866 000 (2005 est) NgerulmudPalauthe capital of the Republic of Palau, located on Babeldaob, the country's largest island. Pop: 391 (2013)NiameyNigerthe capital of Niger, in the southwest, on the River Niger: became capital in 1926; airport and land route centre. Pop: 997 000 (2005 est) NicosiaCyprusthe capital of Cyprus, in the central part on the Pedieos River: capital since the 10th century. Pop (Greek and Turkish): 211 000 (2005 est) NouakchottMauritaniathe capital of Mauritania, near the Atlantic coast: replaced St Louis as capital in 1957; situated on important caravan routes. Pop: 559 000 (2002 est) Nuku'alofaTongathe capital of Tonga, a port on the N coast of Tongatapu Island. Pop: 36 000 (2005 est) OsloNorwaythe capital and chief port of Norway, in the southeast at the head of Oslo Fjord (an inlet of the Skagerrak): founded in about 1050; university (1811); a major commercial and industrial centre, producing about a quarter of Norway's total output. Pop: 521 886 (2004 est) OttawaCanadathe capital of Canada, in E Ontario on the Ottawa River: name changed from Bytown to Ottawa in 1854. Pop: 883 391 (2011) OuagadougouBurkina-Fasothe capital of Burkina Faso, on the central plateau: terminus of the railway from Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Pop: 870 000 (2005 est) PalikirMicronesiacapital of Micronesia Panama CityPanamathe capital of Panama, near the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal: developed rapidly with the building of the Panama Canal; seat of the University of Panama (1935). Pop: 950 000 (2005 est) ParamariboSurinamethe capital and chief port of Suriname, 27 km (17 miles) from the Atlantic on the Suriname River: the only large town in the country. Pop: 261 000 (2005 est) ParisFrancethe capital of France, in the north on the River Seine: constitutes a department; dates from the 3rd century bc, becoming capital of France in 987; centre of the French Revolution; centres around its original site on an island in the Seine, the Île de la Cité, containing Notre Dame; university (1150). Pop: 2 203 817 (2006) Phnom PenhCambodiathe capital of Cambodia, a port in the south at the confluence of the Mekong and Tonle Sap Rivers: capital of the country since 1865; university (1960). Pop: 1 174 000 (2005 est) PodgoricaMontenegrothe capital of Montenegro: under Turkish rule (1474–1878). Pop: 230 000 (2005 est) Port-au-PrinceHaitithe capital and chief port of Haiti, in the south on the Gulf of Gonaïves: founded in 1749 by the French; university (1944). Pop: 2 090 000 (2005 est) Port LouisMauritiusthe capital and chief port of Mauritius, on the NW coast on the Indian Ocean. Pop: 146 876 (2002 est) Port MoresbyPapua New Guineathe capital and chief port of Papua New Guinea, on the SE coast on the Gulf of Papua: important Allied base in World War II. Pop: 290 000 (2005 est) Port of SpainTrinidad and Tobagothe capital and chief port of Trinidad and Tobago, on the W coast of Trinidad. Pop: 56 000 (2005 est) Porto NovoBeninthe capital of Benin, in the southwest on a coastal lagoon: formerly a centre of Portuguese settlement and the slave trade. Pop: 253 000 (2005 est) Port VilaVanuatu the capital and largest city of Vanuatu, located on the island of Efate. Pop: 44 000 (2009)PragueCzech Republicthe capital and largest city of the Czech Republic, on the Vltava River: a rich commercial centre during the Middle Ages; site of Charles University (1348) and a technical university (1707); scene of defenestrations (1419 and 1618) that contributed to the outbreak of the Hussite Wars and the Thirty Years' War respectively. Pop: 1 164 000 (2005 est) PraiaCabo Verdethe capital of Cabo Verde; a port and submarine cable station. Pop: 115 000 (2005 est) PretoriaSouth Africaa city in N South Africa, the administrative capital of South Africa; formerly capital of Transvaal province: two universities (1873, 1930); large steelworks. Pop: 741 651 (2011) PyongyangNorth Koreathe capital of North Korea, in the southwest on the Taedong River: industrial centre; university (1946). Pop: 3 284 000 (2005 est) QuitoEcuadorthe capital of Ecuador, in the north at an altitude of 2850 m (9350 ft), just south of the equator: the oldest capital in South America, existing many centuries before the Incan conquest in 1487; a cultural centre since the beginning of Spanish rule (1534); two universities. Pop: 1 514 000 (2005 est) RabatMoroccothe capital of Morocco, in the northwest on the Atlantic coast, served by the port of Salé: became a military centre in the 12th century and a Corsair republic in the 17th century. Pop: 673 000 (2003) ReykjavikIcelandthe capital and chief port of Iceland, situated in the southwest: its buildings are heated by natural hot water. Pop: 112 490 (2003 est) RigaLatviathe capital of Latvia, on the Gulf of Riga at the mouth of the Western Dvina on the Baltic Sea: a port and major trading centre since Viking times. Pop: 739 232 (2002 est) RiyadhSaudi Arabiathe joint capital (with Mecca) of Saudi Arabia, situated in a central oasis: the largest city in the country. Pop: 5 514 000 (2005 est) RomeItalythe capital of Italy, on the River Tiber: includes the independent state of the Vatican City; traditionally founded by Romulus on the Palatine Hill in 753 bc, later spreading to six other hills east of the Tiber; capital of the Roman Empire; a great cultural and artistic centre, esp during the Renaissance. Pop: 2 546 804 (2001) RoseauDominicathe capital of Dominica, a port on the SW coast: botanical gardens. Pop: 19 400 (2001 est) San`aYemenSan JoséCosta Ricathe capital of Costa Rica, on the central plateau: a major centre of coffee production in the mid-19th century; University of Costa Rica (1843). Pop: 1 145 000 (2005 est) San JuanPuerto Ricothe capital and chief port of Puerto Rico, on the NE coast; University of Puerto Rico; manufacturing centre. Pop: 433 733 (2003 est) San MarinoSan Marinoa republic in S central Europe in the Apennines, forming an enclave in Italy: the smallest republic in Europe, according to tradition founded by St Marinus in the 4th century. Official language: Italian. Religion: Roman Catholic majority. Currency: euro. Capital: San Marino. Pop: 32 448 (2013 est). Area: 62 sq km (24 sq miles) San SalvadorEl Salvadorthe capital of El Salvador, situated in the SW central part: became capital in 1841; ruined by earthquakes in 1854 and 1873; university (1841). Pop: 1 472 000 (2005 est) SantiagoChilethe capital of Chile, at the foot of the Andes: commercial and industrial centre; two universities. Pop: 5 623 000 (2005 est) Santo DomingoDominican Republicthe capital and chief port of the Dominican Republic, on the S coast: the oldest continuous European settlement in the Americas, founded in 1496; university (1538). Pop: 1 920 000 (2005 est) São ToméSão Tomé and Principecapital of São Tomé and Príncipe, on this island: pop. 43,000 SarajevoBosnia and Herzegovinathe capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina: developed as a Turkish town in the 15th century; capital of the Turkish and Austro-Hungarian administrations in 1850 and 1878 respectively; scene of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, precipitating World War I; besieged by Bosnian Serbs (1992–95). Pop: 603 000 (2005 est) SeoulSouth Koreathe capital of South Korea, in the west on the Han River: capital of Korea from 1392 to 1910, then seat of the Japanese administration until 1945; became capital of South Korea in 1948; cultural and educational centre. Pop: 9 592 000 (2005 est) SingaporeSingaporethe capital of the republic of Singapore: a major international port; administratively not treated as a city SkopjeMacedoniathe capital of (the Former Yugoslav Republic of) Macedonia, on the Vardar River: became capital of Serbia in 1346 and of Macedonia in 1945; suffered a severe earthquake in 1963; university (1949). Pop: 449 000 (2005 est) SofiaBulgariathe capital of Bulgaria, in the west: colonized by the Romans in 29 ad; became capital of Bulgaria in 1879; university (1880). Pop: 1 045 000 (2005 est) St. George'sGrenadacapital of Grenada, on the SW coast: pop. 36,000 St. John'sAntigua and Barbudathe capital of Antigua and Barbuda: a port on the NW coast of the island of Antigua StockholmSwedenthe capital of Sweden, a port in the E central part at the outflow of Lake Mälaren into the Baltic: situated partly on the mainland and partly on islands; traditionally founded about 1250; university (1877). Pop: 765 582 (2004 est) SucreBoliviathe legal capital of Bolivia, in the south central part of the country in the E Andes: university (1624). Pop: 231 000 (2005 est) SuvaFijithe capital and chief port of Fiji, on the SE coast of Viti Levu; popular tourist resort; University of the South Pacific (1968). Pop: 219 000 (2005 est) TaipeiTaiwanthe capital of Taiwan (the Republic of China), at the N tip of the island: became capital in 1885; industrial centre; two universities. Pop: 2 473 000 (2005 est) TallinnEstoniathe capital of Estonia, on the Gulf of Finland: founded by the Danes in 1219; a port and naval base. Pop: 384 000 (2005 est) TarawaKiribatian atoll in Kiribati, occupying a chain of islets surrounding a lagoon in the W central Pacific: the capital of Kiribati, Bairiki, is on this atoll. Pop: 45 989 (2005) TashkentUzbekistanthe capital of Uzbekistan: one of the oldest and largest cities in central Asia; cotton textile manufacturing. Pop: 2 160 000 (2005 est) TbilisiGeorgiathe capital of Georgia, on the Kura River: founded in 458; taken by the Russians in 1801; university (1918); a major industrial centre. Pop: 1 042 000 (2005 est) TegucigalpaHondurasthe capital of Honduras, in the south on the Choluteca River: founded about 1579; university (1847). Pop: 1 061 000 (2005 est) TehranIranthe capital of Iran, at the foot of the Elburz Mountains: built on the site of the ancient capital Ray, destroyed by Mongols in 1220; became capital in the 1790s; three universities. Pop: 7 352 000 (2005 est) Tel AvivIsraela city in W Israel, on the Mediterranean: the largest city and chief financial centre of Israel; incorporated the city of Jaffa in 1950; university (1953): regarded by the international community as the capital of Israel, though most functions of the capital operate from Jerusalem. Pop: 363 400 (2003 est) ThimphuBhutancapital of Bhutan, in the W part: pop. 30,000 TiranaAlbaniathe capital of Albania, in the central part 32 km (20 miles) from the Adriatic: founded in the early 17th century by Turks; became capital in 1920; the country's largest city and industrial centre. Pop: 390 000 (2005 est) TokyoJapanthe capital of Japan, a port on SE Honshu on Tokyo Bay (an inlet of the Pacific): part of the largest conurbation in the world (the Tokyo-Yokohama metropolitan area) of over 35 million people; major industrial centre and the chief cultural centre of Japan. Pop (city proper): 8 025 538 (2002 est) TripoliLibyathe capital and chief port of Libya, in the northwest on the Mediterranean: founded by Phoenicians in about the 7th century bc; the only city that has survived of the three (Oea, Leptis Magna, and Sabratha) that formed the African Tripolis ("three cities"); fishing and manufacturing centre. Pop: 1 223 300 (2002 est) TunisTunisiathe capital and chief port of Tunisia, in the northeast on the Gulf of Tunis (an inlet of the Mediterranean): dates from Carthaginian times, the ruins of ancient Carthage lying to the northeast; university (1960). Pop: 2 063 000 (2005 est) Ulan BatorMongoliathe capital of Mongolia, in the N central part: developed in the mid-17th century around the Da Khure monastery, residence until 1924 of successive "living Buddhas" (third in rank of Buddhist-Lamaist leaders), and main junction of caravan routes across Mongolia; university (1942); industrial and commercial centre. Pop: 842 000 (2005 est) VaduzLiechtensteinthe capital of Liechtenstein, in the Rhine valley: an old market town, dominated by a medieval castle, residence of the prince of Liechtenstein. Pop: 5005 (2003 est) VallettaMaltathe capital of Malta, on the NE coast: founded by the Knights Hospitallers, after the victory over the Turks in 1565; became a major naval base after Malta's annexation by Britain (1814). Pop: 84 000 (2005 est) Vatican CityVatican Cityan independent state forming an enclave in Rome, with extraterritoriality over 12 churches and palaces in Rome: the only remaining Papal State; independence recognized by the Italian government in 1929; contains St Peter's Basilica and Square and the Vatican; the spiritual and administrative centre of the Roman Catholic Church. Languages: Italian and Latin. Currency: euro. Pop: 836 (2013 est). Area: 44 hectares (109 acres) VictoriaSeychellesthe capital of the Seychelles, a port on NE Mahé. Pop: 25 500 (2004 est) ViennaAustriathe capital and the smallest state of Austria, in the northeast on the River Danube: seat of the Hapsburgs (1278-1918); residence of the Holy Roman Emperor (1558–1806); withstood sieges by Turks in 1529 and 1683; political and cultural centre in the 18th and 19th centuries, having associations with many composers; university (1365). Pop: 1 590 242 (2003 est). Area: 1075 sq km (415 sq miles) VientianeLaosthe administrative capital of Laos, in the south near the border with Thailand: capital of the kingdom of Vientiane from 1707 until taken by the Thais in 1827. Pop: 776 000 (2005 est) VilniusLithuaniathe capital of Lithuania: passed to Russia in 1795; under Polish rule (1920–39); university (1578); an industrial and commercial centre. Pop: 544 000 (2005 est) WarsawPolandthe capital of Poland, in the E central part on the River Vistula: became capital at the end of the 16th century; almost completely destroyed in World War II as the main centre of the Polish resistance movement; rebuilt within about six years; university (1818); situated at the junction of important trans-European routes. Pop: 2 204 000 (2005 est) Washington DCUnited States of AmericaWellingtonNew Zealandthe capital city of New Zealand. Its port, historically Port Nicholson, on Wellington Harbour has a car and rail ferry link between the North and South Islands; university (1899). Pop: 204 000 (2013 est) WindhoekNamibiathe capital of Namibia, in the centre, at an altitude of 1654 m (5428 ft): formerly the capital of German South West Africa. Pop: 252 000 (2005 est) YamoussoukroCôte d'Ivoirethe capital of Côte d'Ivoire, situated in the S centre of the country. It replaced Abidjan as capital in 1983. Pop: 468 000 (2005 est) YangonMyanmarYaoundé or YaundeCameroonthe capital of Cameroon, in the southwest: University of Cameroon (1962). Pop: 1 727 000 (2005 est) YarenNauruYerevanArmeniathe capital of Armenia: founded in the 8th century bc; an industrial city and a main focus of trade routes since ancient times; university. Pop: 1 066 000 (2005 est) ZagrebCroatiathe capital of Croatia, on the River Sava; gothic cathedral; university (1874); industrial centre. Pop: 685 000 (2005 est) ▷ See capital
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Word List of Capital cities from the Collins English Word Lists