Islands and island groups
AchillAdmiraltyAegeanAeginaan island in the Aegean Sea, in the Saronic Gulf. Area: 85 sq km (33 sq miles) Alcatrazan island in W California, in San Francisco Bay: a federal prison until 1963 Aldabraan island group in the Indian Ocean: part of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1965–76); now administratively part of the Seychelles Alderneyone of the Channel Islands, in the English Channel: separated from the French coast by a dangerous tidal channel (the Race of Alderney) AleutianAlexanderAmboinaAndamanAndaman and NicobarAndreanofAndrosan island in the Aegean Sea, the northernmost of the Cyclades: long famous for wine. Capital: Andros. Pop: 10 009 (2001). Area: about 311 sq km (120 sq miles) Angleseyan island and county of N Wales, formerly part of Gwynedd (1974–96), separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait. Administrative centre: Llangefni. Pop: 59 500 (2003 est). Area: 720 sq km (278 sq miles) Anguillaan island in the Caribbean, in the Leeward Islands: part of the British associated state of St Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla from 1967 until 1980, when it reverted to the status of a British dependency and is now a UK Overseas Territory. Pop: 15 754 (2013 est). Area: 90 sq km (35 sq miles) Anticostian island of E Canada, in the Gulf of St Lawrence; part of Quebec. Area: 7881 sq km (3043 sq miles) Antiguaan island in the Caribbean, one of the Leeward Islands: a British colony, with its dependency Barbuda, until 1967, when it became a British associated state; it became independent in 1981 as part of the state of Antigua and Barbuda. Area: 279 sq km (108 sq miles) Antillesmain island group of the West Indies, including all but the Bahamas AntipodesAranArranan island off the SW coast of Scotland, in the Firth of Clyde. Pop: 5045 (2001). Area: 427 sq km (165 sq miles) Aru or ArruArubaan island in the Caribbean, off the NW coast of Venezuela, a dependency of the Netherlands with special status; part of the Netherlands Antilles until 1986. Chief town: Oranjestad. Pop: 109 153 (2013 est). Area: about 181 sq km (70 sq miles) Ascensionan island in the S Atlantic, northwest of St Helena: uninhabited until claimed by Britain in 1815. Pop: 884 (2010 est). Area: 88 sq km (34 sq miles) Aucklandthe chief port of New Zealand, in the northern part of North Island: former capital of New Zealand (1840–65). Pop: 450 300 (2010 est) Azoresgroup of islands in the N Atlantic, c. 800 mi (1,287 km) west of Portugal and constituting an autonomous region of that country: 900 sq mi (2,331 sq km); pop. 238,000; chief city, Ponta Delgada BaffinBahamascountry on a group of islands (Bahama Islands) in the West Indies, southeast of Fla. & north of Cuba: formerly a British possession, it became independent (1973) & a member of the Commonwealth: 5,353 sq mi (13,864 sq km); pop. 264,000; cap. Nassau BalearicBalian island in Indonesia, east of Java: mountainous, rising over 3000 m (10 000 ft). Capital: Denpasar. Pop: 3 151 162 (2000). Area: 5558 sq km (2146 sq miles) Banabaan island in the SW Pacific, in the Republic of Kiribati. Phosphates were mined by Britain (1900–79). Area: about 5 sq km (2 sq miles). Pop: 301 (2005) Bangkaan island in Indonesia, separated from Sumatra by the Bangka Strait. Chief town: Pangkalpinang. Area: about 11 914 sq km (4600 sq miles) BanksBaranofisland in Alexander Archipelago, Alas.: c. 1,600 sq mi (4,144 sq km): largest city, Sitka Barbadosan island in the Caribbean, in the E Lesser Antilles: a British colony from 1628 to 1966, now an independent state within the Commonwealth. Language: English. Currency: Barbados dollar. Capital: Bridgetown. Pop: 288 725 (2013 est). Area: 430 sq km (166 sq miles) Barbudaa coral island in the E Caribbean, in the Leeward Islands: part of the independent state of Antigua and Barbuda. Area: 160 sq km (62 sq miles) BardseyBarraan island in NW Scotland, in the Outer Hebrides: fishing, crofting, tourism. Pop: 1078 (2001) Basilana group of islands in the Philippines, SW of Mindanao Basse-Terrea mountainous island in the Caribbean, in the Leeward Islands, comprising part of Guadeloupe. Area: 848 sq km (327 sq miles) BatanBelauBelleBenbeculaBermudaa UK Overseas Territory consisting of a group of over 150 coral islands (the Bermudas) in the NW Atlantic: discovered in about 1503, colonized by the British by 1612, although not acquired by the British crown until 1684. Capital: Hamilton. Pop: 69 467 (2013 est). Area: 53 sq km (20 sq miles) Biakan island in Indonesia, north of New Guinea: the largest of the Schouten Islands. Area: 2455 sq km (948 sq miles) Billitonan island of Indonesia, in the Java Sea between Borneo and Sumatra. Chief town: Tanjungpandan. Area: 4833 sq km (1866 sq miles) Biokoan island in the Gulf of Guinea, off the coast of Cameroon: part of Equatorial Guinea. Capital: Malabo. Area: 2017 sq km (786 sq miles) Boholan island of the central Philippines. Chief town: Tagbilaran. Pop: 1 139 130 (2000). Area: about 3900 sq km (1500 sq miles) Bonairean island in the S Caribbean, part of the Netherlands Antilles until their dissolution in 2010, now a special municipality of the Netherlands: one of the Leeward Islands. Chief town: Kralendijk. Pop: 11 537 (2007 est). Area: about 288 sq km (111 sq miles) BoninBora Boraan island in the S Pacific, in French Polynesia, in the Society Islands: one of the Leeward Islands. Area: 39 sq km (15 sq miles) Borneoan island in the W Pacific, between the Sulu and Java Seas, part of the Malay Archipelago: divided into Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah, and the sultanate of Brunei; mountainous and densely forested. Area: about 750 000 sq km (290 000 sq miles) Bornholman island in the Baltic Sea, south of Sweden: administratively part of Denmark. Chief town: Rønne. Pop: 43 956 (2003 est). Area: 588 sq km (227 sq miles) Bougainvillean island in the W Pacific, in Papua New Guinea: the largest of the Solomon Islands: unilaterally declared independence in 1990; occupied by government troops in 1992, and granted autonomy in 2001. Chief town: Kieta. Area: 10 049 sq km (3880 sq miles) BritishButean island off the coast of SW Scotland, in Argyll and Bute council area: situated in the Firth of Clyde, separated from the Cowal peninsula by the Kyles of Bute. Chief town: Rothesay. Pop: 7228 (2001). Area: 121 sq km (47 sq miles) Butungan island of Indonesia, southeast of Sulawesi: hilly and forested. Chief town: Baubau. Area: 4555 sq km (1759 sq miles) CaicosCaldyCalf of ManCampobelloan island in the Bay of Fundy, off the coast of SE Canada: part of New Brunswick province. Pop: 1195 (2001). Area: about 52 sq km (20 sq miles) CanaryCannaCanveyCape BretonCaprian island off W Italy, in the Bay of Naples: resort since Roman times. Pop: 12 200 (2002 est). Area: about 13 sq km (5 sq miles) CarolineCaymanCebúCeylonan island in the Indian Ocean, off the SE coast of India: consists politically of the republic of Sri Lanka. Area: 64 644 sq km (24 959 sq miles) ChannelChathamChejua volcanic island in the N East China Sea, southwest of Korea: constitutes a province (Cheju-do) of South Korea. Capital: Cheju. Pop: 302 000 (2005 est). Area: 1792 sq km (692 sq miles) ChichagofChiloéisland off SC Chile: 3,241 sq mi (8,394 sq km); pop. 68,000 Chiosan island in the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Turkey: belongs to Greece. Capital: Chios. Pop: 51 936 (2001). Area: 904 sq km (353 sq miles) Choiseulan island in the SW Pacific Ocean, in the Solomon Islands: hilly and densely forested. Area: 3885 sq km (1500 sq miles) Christmas Islandan island in the Indian Ocean, south of Java: administered by Singapore (1900–58), now by Australia; phosphate mining. Pop: 1496 (2013 est). Area: 135 sq km (52 sq miles) CocosCollColonsayan island in W Scotland, in the Inner Hebrides. Area: about 41 sq km (16 sq miles) ConeyCook Islands Corfuan island in the Ionian Sea, in the Ionian Islands: forms, with neighbouring islands, a department of Greece. Pop: 107 879 (2001). Area: 641 sq km (247 sq miles) Corregidoran island at the entrance to Manila Bay, in the Philippines: site of the defeat of American forces by the Japanese (1942) in World War II Corsicaan island in the Mediterranean, west of N Italy: forms, with 43 islets, a region of France; mountainous; settled by Greeks in about 560 bc; sold by Genoa to France in 1768. Capital: Ajaccio. Pop: 265 999 (2003 est). Area: 8682 sq km (3367 sq miles) Cretea mountainous island in the E Mediterranean, the largest island of Greece: of archaeological importance for the ruins of Minoan civilization. Pop: 601 131 (2001). Area: 8331 sq km (3216 sq miles) Cubaa republic and the largest island in the Caribbean, at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico: became a Spanish colony after its discovery by Columbus in 1492; gained independence after the Spanish-American War of 1898 but remained subject to US influence until declared a people's republic under Castro in 1960; subject of an international crisis in 1962, when the US blockaded the island in order to compel the Soviet Union to dismantle its nuclear missile base. Sugar comprises about 80 per cent of total exports; the economy was badly affected by loss of trade following the collapse of the Soviet Union and by the continuing US trade embargo. Diplomatic ties with the US restored in 2014. Language: Spanish. Religion: nonreligious majority. Currency: peso. Capital: Havana. Pop: 11 061 886 (2013 est). Area: 110 922 sq km (42 827 sq miles) Curaçaoan island in the Caribbean, formerly a part of the Netherlands Antilles until their dissolution in 2010, now a constituent country of the Netherlands. Capital: Willemstad. Pop: 146 836 (2013 est). Area: 444 sq km (171 sq miles) Cycladesa group of over 200 islands in the S Aegean Sea, forming a department of Greece. Capital: Hermoupolis (Ermoupoli, on Syros). Pop: 112 615 (2001). Area: 2572 sq km (993 sq miles) Cyprusan island in the E Mediterranean: ceded to Britain by Turkey in 1878 and made a colony in 1925; became an independent republic in 1960 as a member of the Commonwealth; invaded by Turkey in 1974 following a Greek-supported military coup, leading to the partition of the island. In 1983 the Turkish-controlled northern sector declared itself to be an independent state as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus but failed to receive international recognition. Attempts by the UN to broker a reunification agreement have failed. Cyprus joined the EU in 2004. The UK maintains two enclaves as military bases (Akrotiri and Dhekelia Sovereign Base Areas), which are not included in Cyprus politically. Languages: Greek and Turkish. Religions: Greek Orthodox and Muslim. Currency: euro and Turkish lira. Capital: Nicosia. Pop (Greek): 838 897 (2011 est); (Turkish): 265 100 (2006 est). Area: 9251 sq km (3571 sq miles) Cytheraa Greek island off the SE coast of the Peloponnese: in ancient times a centre of the worship of Aphrodite. Pop: 3354 (2001). Area: about 285 sq km (110 sq miles) Delosa Greek island in the SW Aegean Sea, in the Cyclades: a commercial centre in ancient times; the legendary birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. Area: about 5 sq km (2 sq miles) D'EntrecasteauxDiomedeDiskoan island in Davis Strait, off the W coast of Greenland: extensive coal deposits Diua small island off the NW coast of India: together with a mainland area, it formed a district of Portuguese India (1535–1961); formerly part of the Indian Union Territory of Goa, Daman, and Diu (1962–87) Djerba or Jerbaan island off the SE coast of Tunisia, in the Gulf of Gabès: traditionally Homer's land of the lotus-eaters. Pop: about 100 000 (latest est). Area: 510 sq km (197 sq miles) Dodecanesea group of islands in the SE Aegean Sea, forming a department of Greece: part of the Southern Sporades. Capital: Rhodes. Pop: 190 071 (2001). Area: 2663 sq km (1028 sq miles) Dominicaa republic in the E Caribbean, comprising a volcanic island in the Windward Islands group; a former British colony; became independent as a member of the Commonwealth in 1978. Official language: English. Religion: Roman Catholic majority. Currency: East Caribbean dollar. Capital: Roseau. Pop: 73 286 (2013 est). Area: 751 sq km (290 sq miles) Dry Tortugasa group of eight coral islands at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico: part of Florida EasterEiggElbaa mountainous island off the W coast of Italy, in the Mediterranean: Napoleon Bonaparte's first place of exile (1814–15). Pop: 30 000 (latest est). Area: 223 sq km (86 sq miles) Ellesmerenorthernmost island of the Arctic Archipelago, in the Baffin region of Nunavut, Canada: 75,767 sq mi (196,236 sq km) Espíritu Santoan island in the SW Pacific: the largest and westernmost of the Vanuatu islands. Area: 4856 sq km (1875 sq miles) Euboeaan island in the W Aegean Sea: the largest island after Crete of the Greek archipelago; linked with the mainland by a bridge across the Euripus channel. Capital: Chalcis. Pop: 198 130 (2001). Area: 3908 sq km (1509 sq miles) Faeroesa group of 21 basalt islands in the North Atlantic between Iceland and the Shetland Islands: a self-governing community within the kingdom of Denmark; fishing. Capital: Thorshavn. Pop: 49 709 (2013 est). Area: 1400 sq km (540 sq miles) Faial or Fayalan island in the central Azores archipelago. Chief town: Horta. Area: 171 sq km (66 sq miles) FairFalklandFalsteran island in the Baltic Sea, part of SE Denmark. Chief town: Nykøbing. Pop: 43 537 (2003 est). Area: 513 sq km (198 sq miles) FarquharFernando de Noronhaa volcanic island in the S Atlantic northeast of Cape São Roque: constitutes a federal territory of Brazil; a penal colony since the 18th century; inhabited by military personnel. Area: 26 sq km (10 sq miles) Fijian independent republic, consisting of 844 islands (chiefly Viti Levu and Vanua Levu) in the SW Pacific: a British colony (1874–1970); a member of the Commonwealth (1970–87 and from 1997); the large islands are of volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; smaller ones are of coral. Official language: English. Religion: Christian and Hindu. Currency: dollar. Capital: Suva. Pop: 896 758 (2013 est). Area: 18 272 sq km (7055 sq miles) FlannanFlindersFloresan island in Indonesia, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, between the Flores Sea and the Savu Sea: mountainous, with active volcanoes and unexplored forests. Chief town: Ende. Area: 17 150 sq km (6622 sq miles) Florida Keyschain of small islands extending southwest from the S tip of Fla. FoulaFoulnessa flat marshy island in SE England, in Essex north of the Thames estuary Franz Josef Landan archipelago of over 100 islands in the Arctic Ocean, administratively part of Russia. Area: about 21 000 sq km (8000 sq miles) French West Indiesislands in the West Indies that belong to France, including two overseas departments (Martinique & Guadeloupe) & several former dependencies of Guadeloupe Frisiana language spoken in the NW Netherlands, parts of N Germany, and adjacent islands, belonging to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European family: the nearest relative of the English language; it has three main dialects Fynisland of Denmark, between Jutland & Zealand: 1,149 sq mi (2,976 sq km) GalápagosGambierGighaGilbertGotland, Gothland, or Gottlandan island in the Baltic Sea, off the SE coast of Sweden: important trading centre since the Bronze Age; long disputed between Sweden and Denmark, finally becoming Swedish in 1645; tourism and agriculture now important. Capital: Visby. Pop: (including associated islands) 57 677 (2004 est). Area: 3140 sq km (1212 sq miles) Grand Bahamaan island in the Atlantic, in the W Bahamas. Pop: 46 994 (2000). Area: 1114 sq km (430 sq miles) Grand CanaryGrande-Terrea French island in the Caribbean, in the Lesser Antilles: one of the two main islands which constitute Guadeloupe. Chief town: Pointe-à-Pitre Grand Manana Canadian island, off the SW coast of New Brunswick: separated from the coast of Maine by the Grand Manan Channel. Area: 147 sq km (57 sq miles) Greater Antillesgroup of islands in the West Indies, made up of the N & W Antilles, including the islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, & Puerto Rico Greater SundaGreenlanda large island, lying mostly within the Arctic Circle off the NE coast of North America: first settled by Icelanders in 986; resettled by Danes from 1721 onwards; integral part of Denmark (1953–79); granted internal autonomy 1979; mostly covered by an icecap up to 3300 m (11 000 ft) thick, with ice-free coastal strips and coastal mountains; the population is largely Inuit, with a European minority; fishing, hunting, and mining. Capital: Nuuk (Godthåb). Pop: 57 714 (2013 est). Area: 175 600 sq km (840 000 sq miles) Grenadaan island state in the Caribbean, in the Windward Islands: formerly a British colony (1783–1967); since 1974 an independent state within the Commonwealth; occupied by US troops (1983–85); mainly agricultural. Official language: English. Religion: Christian majority. Currency: East Caribbean dollar. Capital: St George's. Pop: 109 590 (2013 est). Area: 344 sq km (133 sq miles) Grenadineschain of small islands of the Windward group in the West Indies: the northern group is part of the nation of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, & the southern group is part of Grenada Guadalcanala mountainous island in the SW Pacific, the largest of the Solomon Islands: under British protection until 1978; occupied by the Japanese (1942–43). Pop: 109 382 (1999). Area: 6475 sq km (2500 sq miles) Guaman island in the N Pacific, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas: belonged to Spain from the 17th century until 1898, when it was ceded to the US; site of naval and air force bases. Capital: Agana (now officially spelt Hagåtña). Pop: 160 378 (2013 est). Area: 541 sq km (209 sq miles) Guernseyan island in the English Channel: a British Crown Dependency (but not part of the United Kingdom); the second largest of the Channel Islands, which, with Alderney and Sark, Herm, Jethou, and some islets, forms the bailiwick of Guernsey; finance, market gardening, dairy farming, and tourism. Capital: St Peter Port. Pop: 65 605 (2013). Area: 63 sq km (24.5 sq miles) Hainan or Hainan Taoan island and province in the South China Sea, separated from the mainland of S China by the Hainan Strait: part of Guangdong province until 1988; mainland China's largest offshore island. Pop: 8 110 000 (2003 est). Area: 33 572 sq km (12 962 sq miles) HandaHawaiia state of the US in the central Pacific, consisting of over 20 volcanic islands and atolls, including Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, and Molokai: discovered by Captain Cook in 1778; annexed by the US in 1898; naval base at Pearl Harbor attacked by the Japanese in 1941, a major cause of US entry into World War II; became a state in 1959. Capital: Honolulu. Pop: 1 257 608 (2003 est). Area: 16 640 sq km (6425 sq miles) HaylingHeard and McDonaldHebridesgroup of islands off the W coast of Scotland: they are divided into the Inner Hebrides, nearer the mainland, & the Outer Hebrides: c. 2,800 sq mi (7,252 sq km); pop. c. 80,000 HeimaeyHeligolanda small island in the North Sea, one of the North Frisian Islands, separated from the coast of NW Germany by the Heligoland Bight: administratively part of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein: a large island in early medieval times, now eroded to an area of about 150 hectares (380 acres); ceded by Britain to Germany in 1890 in exchange for Zanzibar HermHispaniolathe second largest island in the Caribbean, in the Greater Antilles: divided politically into Haiti and the Dominican Republic; discovered in 1492 by Christopher Columbus, who named it La Isla Española. Area: 18 703 sq km (29 418 sq miles) Hokkaidothe second largest and northernmost of the four main islands of Japan, separated from Honshu by the Tsugaru Strait and from the island of Sakhalin, Russia, by La Pérouse Strait: constitutes an autonomous administrative division. Capital: Sapporo. Pop: 5 670 000 (2002 est). Area: 78 508 sq km (30 312 sq miles) HolyHong Konga Special Administrative Region of China, in the south of the country, with some autonomy; formerly a British Crown Colony: consists of Hong Kong Island, leased by China to Britain from 1842 until 1997, Kowloon Peninsula, Stonecutters Island, the New Territories (mainland), leased by China in 1898 for a 99-year period, and over 230 small islands; important entrepôt trade and manufacturing centre, esp for textiles and other consumer goods; university (1912). It retains its own currency, the Hong Kong dollar. Administrative centre: Victoria. Pop: 7 182 724 (2013 est). Area: 1046 sq km (404 sq miles) Honshuthe largest of the four main islands of Japan, between the Pacific and the Sea of Japan; regarded as the Japanese mainland; includes a number of offshore islands and contains most of the main cities. Pop: 102 324 961 (2000). Area: 230 448 sq km (88 976 sq miles) Hormuz or Ormuzan island off the SE coast of Iran, in the Strait of Hormuz: ruins of the ancient city of Hormuz, a major trading centre in the Middle Ages. Area: about 41 sq km (16 sq miles) HowlandIbizaa Spanish island in the W Mediterranean, one of the Balearic Islands: hilly, with a rugged coast; tourism. Pop: 40 175 (2003 est). Area: 541 sq km (209 sq miles) Icariaa Greek island in the Aegean Sea, in the Southern Sporades group. Area: 256 sq km (99 sq miles) Icelandan island republic in the N Atlantic, regarded as part of Europe: settled by Norsemen, who established a legislative assembly in 930; under Danish rule (1380–1918); gained independence in 1918 and became a republic in 1944; contains large areas of glaciers, snowfields, and lava beds with many volcanoes and hot springs (the chief source of domestic heat); inhabited chiefly along the SW coast. The economy is based largely on fishing and tourism. Official language: Icelandic. Official religion: Evangelical Lutheran. Currency: króna. Capital: Reykjavik. Pop: 315 281 (2013 est). Area: 102 828 sq km (39 702 sq miles) Imbrosa Turkish island in the NE Aegean Sea, west of the Gallipoli Peninsula: occupied by Greece (1912–14) and Britain (1914–23). Area: 280 sq km (108 sq miles) Ionaan island off the W coast of Scotland, in the Inner Hebrides: site of St Columba's monastery (founded in 563) and an important early centre of Christianity. Area: 854 ha (2112 acres) Ioniana member of a Hellenic people who settled in Attica in about 1100 bc and later colonized the islands and E coast of the Aegean Sea Irelandan island off NW Europe: part of the British Isles, separated from Britain by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel; contains large areas of peat bog, with mountains that rise over 900 m (3000 ft) in the southwest and several large lakes. It was conquered by England in the 16th and early 17th centuries and ruled as a dependency until 1801, when it was united with Great Britain until its division in 1921 into the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland Ischiaa volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, at the N end of the Bay of Naples. Area: 47 sq km (18 sq miles) Islayan island off the W coast of Scotland: the southernmost of the Inner Hebrides; separated from the island of Jura by the Sound of Islay. Pop: 3457 (2001). Area: 606 sq km (234 sq miles) Isle Royalean island in the northeast US, in NW Lake Superior: forms, with over 100 surrounding islands, Isle Royale National Park. Area: 541 sq km (209 sq miles) Ithacaa Greek island in the Ionian Sea, the smallest of the Ionian Islands: regarded as the home of Homer's Odysseus. Area: 93 sq km (36 sq miles) Iwo Jimaan island in the W Pacific, about 1100 km (700 miles) south of Japan: one of the Volcano Islands; scene of prolonged fighting between US and Japanese forces until taken by the US in 1945; returned to Japan in 1968. Area: 20 sq km (8 sq miles) Jamaicaan island and state in the Caribbean: colonized by the Spanish from 1494 onwards, large numbers of Black slaves being imported; captured by the British in 1655 and established as a colony in 1866; gained full independence in 1962; a member of the Commonwealth. Exports: chiefly bauxite and alumina, sugar, and bananas. Official language: English. Religion: Protestant majority. Currency: Jamaican dollar. Capital: Kingston. Pop: 2 909 714 (2013 est). Area: 10 992 sq km (4244 sq miles) Jan Mayenan island in the Arctic Ocean, between Greenland and N Norway: volcanic, with large glaciers; former site of Dutch whaling stations; annexed to Norway in 1929. Area: 373 sq km (144 sq miles) Javaan island of Indonesia, south of Borneo, from which it is separated by the Java Sea: politically the most important island of Indonesia; it consists chiefly of active volcanic mountains and is densely forested. It came under Dutch control in 1596 and became part of Indonesia in 1949. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. Capital: Jakarta. Pop (with Madura): 121 352 608 (2000 est). Area: 132 174 sq km (51 032 sq miles) Jerseyan island in the English Channel, the largest of the Channel Islands: a British Crown Dependency (but not part of the United Kingdom); forms, with two other islands, the bailiwick of Jersey; colonized from Normandy in the 11th century and still officially French-speaking; noted for finance, market gardening, dairy farming, and tourism. Capital: St Helier. Pop: 95 732 (2013 est). Area: 116 sq km (45 sq miles) Joloan island in the SW Philippines: the main island of the Sulu Archipelago. Pop: 87 998 (2000). Area: 893 sq km (345 sq miles) Juan FernándezJuraan island off the W coast of Scotland, in the Inner Hebrides, separated from the mainland by the Sound of Jura. Pop: 200 (2004 est). Area: 381 sq km (147 sq miles) KangarooKauaia volcanic island in NW Hawaii, northwest of Oahu. Chief town: Lihue. Pop (Kauai county): 60 747 (2003 est). Area (island): 1433 sq km (553 sq miles) Keosan island in the Aegean Sea, in the NW Cyclades. Pop: 2412 (2001). Area: 174 sq km (67 sq miles) KerreraKiritimatian island in the central Pacific, in Kiribati: one of the Line Islands; the largest atoll in the world. Pop: 5115 (2005) Kodiakan island in S Alaska, in the Gulf of Alaska: site of the first European settlement in Alaska, made by Russians in 1784. Pop: 13 466 (2004 est). Area: 8974 sq km (3465 sq miles) Kos or Cosan island in the SE Aegean Sea, in the Greek Dodecanese Islands: separated from SW Turkey by the Kos Channel; settled in ancient times by Dorians and became famous for literature and medicine. Pop: 30 947 (2001). Area: 282 sq km (109 sq miles) KosraeKrakatoa or Krakataua volcanic island in Indonesia, in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra: partially destroyed by its eruption in 1883, the greatest in recorded history. Further eruptions 44 years later formed a new island, Anak Krakatau ("Child of Krakatau") Kuril or KurileKyushu or Kiushuan island of SW Japan: the southernmost of Japan's four main islands, with over 300 surrounding small islands; coalfield and chemical industries. Chief cities: Fukuoka, Kitakyushu, and Nagasaki. Pop: 14 786 000 (2002 est). Area: 35 659 sq km (13 768 sq miles) La Palmaan island in the N Atlantic, in the NW Canary Islands: administratively part of Spain. Chief town: Santa Cruz de la Palma. Pop: 85 547 (2002 est). Area: 725 sq km (280 sq miles) Labuanan island off the NW coast of Borneo, forming a federal territory of Malaysia: part of the Straits Settlements until 1946, when transferred to North Borneo. Chief town: Victoria (or Labuan). Area: 98 sq km (38 sq miles) Lakshadweepterritory of India comprising the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi islands: 12.4 sq mi (32 sq km); pop. 52,000 Lampedusaan island in the Mediterranean, between Malta and Tunisia. Area: about 21 sq km (8 sq miles) Lanaian island in central Hawaii, west of Maui island. Pop: 3193 (2000). Area: 363 sq km. (140 sq miles) LavongaiLeewardLemnosa Greek island in the N Aegean Sea: famous for its medicinal earth (Lemnian seal). Chief town: Kastron. Pop: 18 104 (2001). Area: 477 sq km (184 sq miles) Lesbosan island in the E Aegean, off the NW coast of Turkey: a centre of lyric poetry, led by Alcaeus and Sappho (6th century bc); annexed to Greece in 1913. Chief town: Mytilene. Pop: 90 642 (2001). Area: 1630 sq km (630 sq miles) Lesser Antillesgroup of islands in the West Indies, southeast of Puerto Rico, including the Leeward Islands, the Windward Islands, & the islands off the N coast of Venezuela Levkás, Leukas, or Leucasa Greek island in the Ionian Sea, in the Ionian Islands. Pop: 20 751 (2001). Area: 295 sq km (114 sq miles) Lewis with Harris or Lewis and Harrisan island in the Outer Hebrides, separated from the NW coast of Scotland by the Minch: consists of Lewis in the north and Harris in the south; many lakes and peat moors; economy based chiefly on the Harris tweed industry, with some fishing. Chief town: Stornoway. Pop: 19 918 (2001). Area: 2134 sq km (824 sq miles) Leytean island in the central Philippines, in the Visayan Islands. Chief town: Tacloban. Pop: 1 592 336 (2000). Area: 7215 sq km (2786 sq miles) LibertyLindisfarneLineLipariLismoreLolland or Laalandan island of Denmark in the Baltic Sea, south of Sjælland. Pop: 69 796 (2003 est). Area: 1240 sq km (480 sq miles) Lombokan island of Indonesia, in the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara) east of Java: came under Dutch rule in 1894; important biologically as being transitional between Asian and Australian in flora and fauna, the line of demarcation beginning at Lombok Strait (a channel between Lombok and Bali, connecting the Flores Sea with the Indian Ocean). Chief town: Mataram. Pop: 2 536 000 (2004 est). Area: 4730 sq km (1826 sq miles) LongLongaLord HoweLuingLundyan island in SW England, in Devon, in the Bristol Channel: now a bird sanctuary. Pop: 28 (2007) Luzonthe main and largest island of the Philippines, in the N part of the archipelago, separated from the other islands by the Sibuyan Sea: important agriculturally, producing most of the country's rice, with large forests and rich mineral resources; industrial centres at Manila and Batangas. Capital: Quezon City. Pop: 39 500 000 (2000). Area: 108 378 sq km (41 845 sq miles) Mackinaca wooded island in N Michigan, in the Straits of Mackinac (a channel between the lower and upper peninsulas of Michigan): an ancient Indian burial ground; state park. Length: 5 km (3 miles) Macquariean Australian island in the Pacific, SE of Tasmania: noted for its species of albatross and penguin. Area: about 168 sq km (65 sq miles) Madagascaran island republic in the Indian Ocean, off the E coast of Africa: made a French protectorate in 1895; became autonomous in 1958 and fully independent in 1960; contains unique flora and fauna. Languages: Malagasy and French. Religions: animist and Christian. Currency: franc. Capital: Antananarivo. Pop: 22 599 098 (2013 est). Area: 587 041 sq km (266 657 sq miles) Madeiraa group of volcanic islands in the N Atlantic, west of Morocco: since 1976 an autonomous region of Portugal; consists of the chief island, Madeira, Porto Santo, and the uninhabited Deserta and Selvagen Islands. Capital: Funchal. Pop: 245 012 (2001). Area: 797 sq km (311 sq miles) Maduraan island in Indonesia, off the NE coast of Java: extensive forests and saline springs. Capital: Pamekasan. Area: 5472 sq km (2113 sq miles) Maewoan almost uninhabited island in Vanuatu Mahéan island in the Indian Ocean, the chief island of the Seychelles. Capital: Victoria. Pop: 71 900 (2002 est). Area: 147 sq km (57 sq miles) Mainlandan island off N Scotland: the largest of the Shetland Islands. Chief town: Lerwick. Pop: 17 550 (2001). Area: about 583 sq km (225 sq miles) Majorcaan island in the W Mediterranean: the largest of the Balearic Islands; tourism. Capital: Palma. Pop: 730 778 (2002 est). Area: 3639 sq km (1465 sq miles) Maldivescountry on a group of islands in the Indian Ocean, southwest of Sri Lanka: a former sultanate under British protection, it became independent in 1965, a republic in 1968, & a member of the Commonwealth in 1982: 115 sq mi (298 sq km); pop. 213,000; cap. Malé Maléthe capital of the Republic of Maldives, on Malé Island in the centre of the island group. Pop: 90 000 (2005 est) Maltaa republic occupying the islands of Malta, Gozo, and Comino, in the Mediterranean south of Sicily: governed by the Knights Hospitallers from 1530 until Napoleon's conquest in 1798; French driven out, with British help, 1800; became British dependency 1814; suffered severely in World War II; became independent in 1964 and a republic in 1974; joined the EU in 2004; a member of the Commonwealth. Official languages: Maltese and English. Official religion: Roman Catholic. Currency: euro (from January 2008 replacing the Maltese lira). Capital: Valletta. Pop: 411 277 (2013 est). Area: 316 sq km (122 sq miles) ManManhattanan island at the N end of New York Bay, between the Hudson, East, and Harlem Rivers: administratively (with adjacent islets) a borough of New York City; a major financial, commercial, and cultural centre. Pop: 1 537 195 (2000). Area: 47 sq km (22 sq miles) ManitoulinMarajóan island in N Brazil, at the mouth of the Amazon. Area: 38 610 sq km (15 444 sq miles) Margaritaan island in the Caribbean, off the NE coast of Venezuela: pearl fishing. Capital: La Asunción Marie Galantean island in the E Caribbean southeast of Guadeloupe, of which it is a dependency. Chief town: Grand Bourg. Pop: 12 488 (1999). Area: 155 sq km (60 sq miles) Marinduquean island of the central Philippines, east of Mindoro: forms, with offshore islets, a province of the Philippines. Capital: Boac. Pop (Marinduque province): 217 392 (2000). Area: 960 sq km (370 sq miles) MarquesasMarshallMartiniquean island in the E Caribbean, in the Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles: administratively an overseas region of France. Capital: Fort-de-France. Pop: 403 795 (2007 est). Area: 1090 sq km (420 sq miles) Masbatean island in the central Philippines, between Negros and SE Luzon: agricultural, with resources of gold, copper, and manganese. Pop (Masbate province): 707 668 (2000). Area: 4045 sq km (1562 sq miles) MascareneMatsu or Mazuan island group in Formosa Strait, off the SE coast of mainland China: belongs to Taiwan. Pop: 9800 (2007 est). Area: 44 sq km (17 sq miles) Mauia volcanic island in S central Hawaii: the second largest of the Hawaiian Islands. Pop: 117 644 (2000). Area: 1885 sq km (728 sq miles) Mauritiusan island and state in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar: originally uninhabited, it was settled by the Dutch (1638–1710) then abandoned; taken by the French in 1715 and the British in 1810; became an independent member of the Commonwealth in 1968. It is economically dependent on sugar. Official language: English; a French creole is widely spoken. Religion: Hindu majority, large Christian minority. Currency: rupee. Capital: Port Louis. Pop: 1 322 238 (2013 est). Area: 1865 sq km (720 sq miles) MayMayottean island in the Indian Ocean, northwest of Madagascar; administered by France. Pop (including Pamanzi): 186 026 (2004 est). Area: 374 sq km (146 sq miles) Melanesiaone of the three divisions of islands in the Pacific (the others being Micronesia and Polynesia); the SW division of Oceania: includes Fiji, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the Louisiade, Solomon, Santa Cruz, and Loyalty Islands, which all lie northeast of Australia Melosan island in the SW Aegean Sea, in the Cyclades: of volcanic origin, with hot springs; centre of early Aegean civilization, where the Venus de Milo was found. Pop: 4771 (2001). Area: 132 sq km (51 sq miles) Melvilleisland of Canada in the Arctic Ocean, north of Victoria Island: 16,274 sq mi (42,149 sq km) MerseaMicronesiaone of the three divisions of islands in the Pacific (the others being Melanesia and Polynesia); the NW division of Oceania: includes the Mariana, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati island groups, and Nauru Island Mindanaothe second largest island of the Philippines, in the S part of the archipelago: mountainous and volcanic. Chief towns: Davao, Zamboanga. Pop: 13 626 338 (2000). Area: (including offshore islands) 94 631 sq km (36 537 sq miles) Mindoroa mountainous island in the central Philippines, south of Luzon. Pop: 1 062 000 (2000 est). Area: 9736 sq km (3759 sq miles) Minorcaan island in the W Mediterranean, northeast of Majorca: the second largest of the Balearic Islands. Chief town: Mahón. Pop: 78 796 (2002 est). Area: 702 sq km (271 sq miles) Miquelonisland in the Atlantic, off the S coast of Newfoundland: part of St-Pierre and Miquelon: 83 sq mi (215 sq km) Molokaian island in central Hawaii. Pop: 7404 (2000). Area: 676 sq km (261 sq miles) Moluccasa group of islands in the Malay Archipelago, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea. Capital: Amboina. Pop: 1 990 598 (2000). Area: about 74 505 sq km (28 766 sq miles) Montserrata volcanic island in the Caribbean, in the Leeward Islands: a UK Overseas Territory: much of the island rendered uninhabitable by volcanic eruptions in 1997. Capital: Brades (replacing Plymouth, effectively destroyed by the eruption). Pop: 5189 (2013 est). Area: 103 sq km (40 sq miles) Mount Desertisland off the S coast of Me.: resort: c. 100 sq mi (259 sq km) MuckMulla mountainous island off the west coast of Scotland, in the Inner Hebrides, separated from the mainland by the Sound of Mull. Chief town: Tobermory. Pop: 2667 (2001). Area: 909 sq km (351 sq miles) Mykonosa Greek island in the S Aegean Sea, one of the Cyclades: a popular tourist resort with many churches. Pop: 9306 (2001) Nantucketan island off SE Massachusetts: formerly a centre of the whaling industry; now a resort. Length: nearly 24 km (15 miles). Width: 5 km (3 miles). Pop (county and town): 10 724 (2003 est) Nauruan island republic in the SW Pacific, west of Kiribati: administered jointly by Australia, New Zealand, and Britain as a UN trust territory before becoming independent in 1968; a member of the Commonwealth (formerly a special member not represented at all meetings, until 1999). The economy is based on export of phosphates. Languages: Nauruan (a Malayo-Polynesian language) and English. Religion: Christian. Currency: Australian dollar. Capital: Yaren. Pop: 9 434 (2013 est). Area: 2130 hectares (5263 acres) Naxosa Greek island in the S Aegean, the largest of the Cyclades: ancient centre of the worship of Dionysius. Pop: 18 188 (2001). Area: 438 sq km (169 sq miles) Negrosan island of the central Philippines, one of the Visayan Islands. Capital: Bacolod. Pop: 3 700 000 (2000 est). Area: 12 704 sq km (4904 sq miles) Netherlands Antillesislands in the West Indies, constituting a part of the kingdom of the Netherlands & comprising two of the Leeward Islands & part of another & three islands off the coast of Venezuela: 308 sq mi (798 sq km); pop. 189,000; cap. Willemstad Nevisan island in the Caribbean, part of St Kitts-Nevis; the volcanic cone of Nevis Peak, which rises to 1002 m (3287 ft), lies in the centre of the island. Capital: Charlestown. Pop: 11 181 (2001. Area: 129 sq km (50 sq miles) New Britainan island in the S Pacific, northeast of New Guinea: the largest island of the Bismarck Archipelago; part of Papua New Guinea; mountainous, with several active volcanoes. Capital: Rabaul. Pop: 161 737 (2000). Area: 36 519 sq km (14 100 sq miles) New Caledoniaan island in the SW Pacific, east of Australia: forms, with its dependencies, a French Overseas Country; discovered by Captain Cook in 1774; rich mineral resources. Capital: Nouméa. Pop: 264 022 (2013 est). Area: 19 103 sq km (7374 miles) Newfoundlandan island of E Canada, separated from the mainland by the Strait of Belle Isle: with the Coast of Labrador, forms the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; consists of a rugged plateau with the Long Range Mountains in the west. Area: 110 681 sq km (42 734 sq miles) New Georgiaa group of islands in the SW Pacific, in the Solomon Islands New Guineaan island in the W Pacific, north of Australia: divided politically into Papua (formerly Irian Jaya, a province of Indonesia) in the west and Papua New Guinea in the east. There is a central chain of mountains and a lowland area of swamps in the south and along the Sepik River in the north. Area: 775 213 sq km (299 310 sq miles) New Irelandan island in the S Pacific, in the Bismarck Archipelago, separated from New Britain by St George's Channel: part of Papua New Guinea. Chief town and port: Kavieng. Pop (province): 118 148 (2000). Area (including adjacent islands): 9850 sq km (3800 sq miles) New Providencean island in the Atlantic, in the Bahamas. Chief town: Nassau. Pop: 210 832 (2000). Area: 150 sq km (58 sq miles) New SiberianNicobarNiuean island in the S Pacific, between Tonga and the Cook Islands: annexed by New Zealand (1901); achieved full internal self-government in 1974. Chief town and port: Alofi. Pop: 1269 (2012 est). Area: 260 sq km (100 sq miles) Norfolka county of E England, on the North Sea and the Wash: low-lying, with large areas of fens in the west and the Broads in the east; rich agriculturally. Administrative centre: Norwich. Pop: 810 700 (2003 est). Area: 5368 sq km (2072 sq miles) North Islandthe northernmost of the two main islands of New Zealand. Pop: 3 422 000 (2013 est). Area: 114 729 sq km (44 297 sq miles) North UistNusa Tenggaraan island chain east of Java, mostly in Indonesia: the main islands are Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, Alor, and Timor. Pop: 11 112 702 (2000). Area: 73 144 sq km (28 241 sq miles) Oahuan island in central Hawaii: the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands. Chief town: Honolulu. Pop: 876 151 (2000). Area: 1574 sq km (608 sq miles) Oceaniathe islands of the central and S Pacific, including Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia: sometimes also including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago Okinawaa coral island of SW Japan, the largest of the Ryukyu Islands in the N Pacific: scene of heavy fighting in World War II; administered by the US (1945–72); agricultural. Chief town: Naha. Pop: 1 318 218 (2000). Area: 1176 sq km (454 sq miles) Orkneys or Orkneya group of over 70 islands off the N coast of Scotland, separated from the mainland by the Pentland Firth: constitutes an island authority of Scotland; low-lying and treeless; many important prehistoric remains. Administrative centre: Kirkwall. Pop: 19 310 (2003 est). Area: 974 sq km (376 sq miles) Palawanan island of the SW Philippines between the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea: the westernmost island in the country; mountainous and forested. Capital: Puerto Princesa. Pop (Palawan province): 755 412 (2000). Area: 11 785 sq km (4550 sq miles) Palmyraan island in the central Pacific, in the Line Islands: under US administration Panayan island in the central Philippines, the westernmost of the Visayan Islands. Pop: 3 500 000 (2000). Area: 12 300 sq km (4750 sq miles) Pantelleriaan Italian island in the Mediterranean, between Sicily and Tunisia: of volcanic origin; used by the Romans as a place of banishment. Pop: 7679 (2004 est). Area: 83 sq km (32 sq miles) PárosPatmosa Greek island in the Aegean, in the NW Dodecanese: St John's place of exile (about 95 ad), where he wrote the Apocalypse. Pop: 2984 (2001). Area: 34 sq km (13 sq miles) PelagianPembaan island in the Indian Ocean, off the E coast of Africa north of Zanzibar: part of Tanzania; produces most of the world's cloves. Chief town: Chake Chake. Pop: 362 166 (2002). Area: 984 sq km (380 sq miles) Penanga state of Peninsular Malaysia: consists of the island of Penang and the province Wellesley on the mainland, which first united administratively in 1798 as a British colony. Capital: George Town. Pop: 1 313 449 (2000). Area: 1030 sq km (398 sq miles) Pescadoresa group of 64 islands in Formosa Strait, separated from Taiwan (to which it belongs) by the Pescadores Channel. Pop: 91 950 (2007 est). Area: 127 sq km (49 sq miles) Philaean island in Upper Egypt, in the Nile north of the Aswan Dam: of religious importance in ancient times; almost submerged since the raising of the level of the dam Philippinescountry occupying a group of c. 7,100 islands (Philippine Islands) in the SW Pacific off the SE coast of Asia: formerly a Spanish possession (1565-1898) & U.S. possession (1898-1946), it became independent in 1946: 115,830 sq mi (299,999 sq km); pop. 60,559,000; cap. Manila PhoenixPitcairnBritish island in Polynesia, in the South Pacific: 1.8 sq mi (4.6 sq km); pop. 54 Polynesiaone of the three divisions of islands in the Pacific, the others being Melanesia and Micronesia: includes Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mangareva, Tuamotu, Cook, and Tubuai Islands, and Tonga PonapePribilofPrince EdwardPrince of Wales Islandan island in N Canada, in Nunavut. Area: about 36 000 sq km (14 000 sq miles) PrincipeQeshm or Qishmthe largest island in the Persian Gulf: part of Iran. Area: 1336 sq km (516 sq miles) Queen CharlotteQueen ElizabethQuemoyan island in Formosa Strait, off the SE coast of China: administratively part of Taiwan. Pop (with associated islets): 80 000 (latest est). Area: 130 sq km (50 sq miles) RaasayRamseyRarotongaan island in the S Pacific, in the SW Cook Islands: the chief island of the group. Chief settlement: Avarua. Pop: 12 188 (2001). Area: 67 sq km (26 sq miles) RathlinRéunionan island in the Indian Ocean, in the Mascarene Islands: an overseas region of France, having been in French possession since 1642. A number of far-flung and uninhabited islands, some located on the opposite side of Madagascar, were also politically part of Réunion until 2007, when they were transferred to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories. Capital: Saint-Denis. Pop: 767 000 (2004 est). Area: 2510 sq km (970 sq miles) Rhodesa Greek island in the SE Aegean Sea, about 16 km (10 miles) off the Turkish coast: the largest of the Dodecanese and the most easterly island in the Aegean. Capital: Rhodes. Pop (municipality): 55 086 (2001). Area: 1400 sq km (540 sq miles) RhumRialtoan island in Venice, Italy, linked with San Marco Island by the Rialto Bridge (1590) over the Grand Canal: the business centre of medieval and renaissance Venice Roanokeisland off the coast of N.C.: site of abortive English colony (1585-87) RobbenRockallan uninhabited British island in the N Atlantic, 354 km (220 miles) W of the Outer Hebrides. Area: 0.07 ha (0.18 acres) RonaRossRyukyuchain of Japanese islands in the W Pacific, between Kyushu & Taiwan: c. 1,800 sq mi (4,662 sq km); pop. 1,223,000: chief island, Okinawa Sabaan island in the NE Caribbean, part of the Netherlands Antilles until their dissolution in 2010, now a special municipality of the Netherlands. Pop: 1491 (2007 est). Area: 13 sq km (5 sq miles) SafetySaipanan island in the W Pacific, administrative centre of the US associated territory of the Northern Mariana Islands (on Capitol Hill); captured by the Americans and used as an air base until the end of World War II. Pop: 62 392 (2000). Area: 180 sq km (70 sq miles) Sakhalinan island in the Sea of Okhotsk, off the SE coast of Russia north of Japan: fishing, forestry, and mineral resources (coal and petroleum). Capital: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. Pop: 546 500 (2002). Area: 76 000 sq km (29 300 sq miles) Salamisan island in the Saronic Gulf, Greece: scene of the naval battle in 480 bc, in which the Greeks defeated the Persians. Pop (municipality): 28 423 (2001). Area: 95 sq km (37 sq miles) SalteeSamaran island in the E central Philippines, separated from S Luzon by the San Bernardino Strait: the third largest island in the republic. Capital: Catbalogan. Pop: 641 124 (2000). Area: 13 080 sq km (5050 sq miles) Samoaan independent state occupying four inhabited islands and five uninhabited islands in the S Pacific archipelago of the Samoa Islands: established as a League of Nations mandate under New Zealand administration in 1920 and a UN trusteeship in 1946; gained independence as Western Samoa in 1962 as the first fully independent Polynesian state; officially changed its name to Samoa in 1997; a member of the Commonwealth. Languages: Samoan and English. Religion: Christian. Currency: tala. Capital: Apia. Pop: 195 476 (2013 est). Area: 2841 sq km (1097 sq miles) Samosa Greek island in the E Aegean Sea, off the SW coast of Turkey: a leading commercial centre of ancient Greece. Pop: 33 809 (2001). Area: 492 sq km (190 sq miles) Samothracea Greek island in the NE Aegean Sea: mountainous. Pop: 2723 (2001) San Cristóbalan island in the Pacific, in the Galápagos Islands. Area: 505 sq km (195 sq miles) San JuanSan SalvadorSanta Catalinaan island in the Pacific, off the coast of SW California: part of Los Angeles county: resort. Area: 181 sq km (70 sq miles) Sao MiguelSao ToméSardiniathe second-largest island in the Mediterranean: forms, with offshore islands, an administrative region of Italy; ceded to Savoy by Austria in 1720 in exchange for Sicily and formed the Kingdom of Sardinia with Piedmont; became part of Italy in 1861. Capital: Cagliari. Pop: 1 637 639 (2003 est). Area: 24 089 sq km (9301 sq miles) Sarkan island in the English Channel in the Channel Islands, consisting of Great Sark and Little Sark, connected by an isthmus: ruled by a hereditary Seigneur or Dame. Pop: 591 (2000). Area: 5 sq km (2 sq miles) Savaiithe largest island in Samoa: mountainous and volcanic. Pop: 42 400 (2001). Area: 1174 sq km (662 sq miles) ScalpaySchoutenScillySeaSeilSeram or Ceraman island in Indonesia, in the Moluccas, separated from New Guinea by the Ceram Sea: mountainous and densely forested. Area: 17 150 sq km (6622 sq miles) Seychellesa group of volcanic islands in the W Indian Ocean: taken by the British from the French in 1744: became an independent republic within the Commonwealth in 1976, incorporating the British Indian Ocean Territory islands of Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches. Languages: Creole, English, and French. Religion: Roman Catholic majority. Currency: rupee. Capital: Victoria. Pop: 90 846 (2013 est). Area: 455 sq km (176 sq miles) SheppeyShetlanda group of about 100 islands (fewer than 20 inhabited), off the N coast of Scotland, which constitute an island authority of Scotland: a Norse dependency from the 8th century until 1472; noted for the breeding of Shetland ponies, knitwear manufacturing, and fishing; oil-related industries. Administrative centre: Lerwick. Pop: 21 870 (2003 est). Area: 1426 sq km (550 sq miles) Sicilythe largest island in the Mediterranean, separated from the tip of SW Italy by the Strait of Messina: administratively an autonomous region of Italy; settled by Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians before the Roman conquest of 241 bc; under Normans (12th–13th centuries); formed the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies with Naples in 1815; mountainous and volcanic. Capital: Palermo. Pop: 4 972 124 (2003 est). Area: 25 460 sq km (9830 sq miles) Singaporea republic in SE Asia, occupying one main island and over 50 small islands at the S end of the Malay Peninsula: established as a British trading post in 1819 and became part of the Straits Settlements in 1826; occupied by the Japanese (1942–45); a British colony from 1946, becoming self-governing in 1959; part of the Federation of Malaysia from 1963 to 1965, when it became an independent republic (within the Commonwealth). Official languages: Chinese, Malay, English, and Tamil. Religion: Buddhist, Taoist, traditional beliefs, and Muslim. Currency: Singapore dollar. Capital: Singapore. Pop: 5 460 302 (2013 est). Area: now over 700 sq km (270 sq miles), increased in recent years as a result of land reclamation schemes SjællandSkikokuSkokholmSkomerSkyea mountainous island off the NW coast of Scotland, the largest island of the Inner Hebrides: tourist centre. Chief town: Portree. Pop: 9232 (2001). Area: 1735 sq km (670 sq miles) Skyros or Scyrosa Greek island in the Aegean, the largest island in the N Sporades. Pop: 2602 (2001). Area: 199 sq km (77 sq miles) SocietySocotraan island in the Indian Ocean, about 240 km (150 miles) off Cape Guardafui, Somalia: administratively part of Yemen. Capital: Hadiboh (Tamrida). Area: 3100 sq km (1200 sq miles) SouthSouthamptona port in S England, in Southampton unitary authority, Hampshire on Southampton Water (an inlet of the English Channel): chief English passenger port; university (1952); shipyards and oil refinery. Pop: 234 224 (2001) South Georgiaan island in the S Atlantic, about 1300 km (800 miles) southeast of the Falkland Islands, part of the UK Overseas Territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; no permanent population. Area: 3755 sq km (1450 sq miles) South OrkneySouth ShetlandSouth UistSpitsbergengroup of Norwegian islands in the Arctic Ocean, constituting the major part of Svalbard: 23,641 sq mi (61,230 sq km) Sporadestwo groups of Greek islands in the Aegean: the Northern Sporades, lying northeast of Euboea, and the Southern Sporades, which include the Dodecanese and lie off the SW coast of Turkey Sri Lankaa republic in S Asia, occupying the island of Ceylon: settled by the Sinhalese from S India in about 550 bc; became a British colony 1802; gained independence in 1948, becoming a republic within the Commonwealth in 1972; civil war (1983–2009) between government forces and Tamil separatist guerrillas. Exports include tea, cocoa, cinnamon, and copra. Official languages: Sinhalese and Tamil; English is also widely spoken. Religion: Hinayana Buddhist majority. Currency: Sri Lanka rupee. Capital: Colombo (administrative), Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (legislative). Pop: 21 675 648 (2013 est). Area: 65 610 sq km (25 332 sq miles) St. Croixlargest island of the Virgin Islands of the U.S.: 83 sq mi (215 sq km); pop. 53,000 St. HelenaBritish island in the South Atlantic, c. 1,200 mi (1,931 km) from Africa: site of Napoleon's exile (1815-21): 47 sq mi (122 sq km); pop. 5,700 St. Johnisland of the Virgin Islands of the U.S.: 20 sq mi (52 sq km); pop. 4,200 St. KildaSt. Kitts or St. Christopherisland of the country St. Kitts and Nevis: 65 sq mi (168 sq km) St. Luciacountry on an island of the Windward group, West Indies, south of Martinique: formerly a British colony, it became independent & a member of the Commonwealth in 1979: 238 sq mi (616 sq km); pop. 133,000; cap. Castries St. Martinisland of the Leeward group, West Indies, south of Anguilla: the N part belongs to France, the S part to the Netherlands Antilles: 34 sq mi (88 sq km); pop. 61,000 St. Tudwal'sSt. Vincentisland of the Windward group in the West Indies: 133 sq mi (344 sq km) Staffaan island in W Scotland, in the Inner Hebrides west of Mull: site of Fingal's Cave StatenStewartisland of New Zealand, just south of South Island: 674 sq mi (1,746 sq km) StromaStrombolian island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, in the Lipari Islands off the N coast of Sicily: famous for its active volcano, 927 m (3040 ft) high Sulawesian island in E Indonesia: mountainous and forested, with volcanoes and hot springs. Pop: 14 946 488 (2000). Area (including adjacent islands): 229 108 sq km (88 440 sq miles) Sumatraa mountainous island in W Indonesia, in the Greater Sunda Islands, separated from the Malay Peninsula by the Strait of Malacca: Dutch control began in the 16th century; joined Indonesia in 1945. Northern coastal areas, esp Aceh province, suffered devastation as a result of the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. Pop: 42 409 510 (2000). Area: 473 606 sq km (182 821 sq miles) Sumba or Soembaan island in Indonesia, in the Lesser Sunda Islands, separated from Flores by the Sumba Strait: formerly important for sandalwood exports. Pop: 355 073 (1990). Area: 11 153 sq km (4306 sq miles) Sumbawa or Soembawaa mountainous island in Indonesia, in the Lesser Sunda Islands, between Lombok and Flores islands. Pop: 1 540 000 (2000). Area: 14 750 sq km (5695 sq miles) SummerSunda or SoendaTahitian island in the S Pacific, in the Windward group of the Society Islands: the largest and most important island in French Polynesia; became a French protectorate in 1842 and a colony in 1880. Capital: Papeete. Pop: 169 674 (2002). Area: 1005 sq km (388 sq miles) Taiwanan island in SE Asia between the East China Sea and the South China Sea, off the SE coast of the People's Republic of China: the principal territory of the Republic of China; claimed by the People's Republic of China since its political separation from mainland China in the late 1940s. Pop: 23 299 716 (2013 est) Tasmaniaan island in the S Pacific, south of mainland Australia: forms, with offshore islands, the smallest state of Australia; discovered by the Dutch explorer Tasman in 1642; used as a penal colony by the British (1803–53); mostly forested and mountainous. Capital: Hobart. Pop: 512 000 (2012 est). Area: 68 332 sq km (26 383 sq miles) Tenedosan island in the NE Aegean, near the entrance to the Dardanelles: in Greek legend the base of the Greek fleet during the siege of Troy Tenerifea Spanish island in the Atlantic, off the NW coast of Africa: the largest of the Canary Islands; volcanic and mountainous; tourism and agriculture. Capital: Santa Cruz. Pop: 778 071 (2002 est). Area: 2058 sq km (795 sq miles) Terceiraan island in the N Atlantic, in the Azores: NATO military air base. Pop: 55 833 (2001). Area: 397 sq km (153 sq miles) ThanetThásosa Greek island in the N Aegean: colonized by Greeks from Paros in the 7th century bc as a gold-mining centre; under Turkish rule (1455–1912). Pop: 13 761 (2001). Area: 379 sq km (146 sq miles) Theraa Greek island in the Aegean Sea, in the Cyclades: site of a Minoan settlement and of the volcano that ended Minoan civilization on Crete. Pop: 13 402 (2001) ThousandThursdayTimoran island in the Malay Archipelago, the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands: the west was a Dutch possession (part of the Dutch East Indies) until 1949, when it became part of Indonesia: the east was held by Portugal until 1975, when it declared independence but was immediately invaded by Indonesia; East Timor finally became an independent state in 2002. Area: 30 775 sq km (11 883 sq miles) Tireean island off the W coast of Scotland, in the Inner Hebrides. Pop: 770 (2001). Area: 78 sq km (30 sq miles) Tobagoan island in the SE Caribbean, northeast of Trinidad: ceded to Britain in 1814; joined with Trinidad in 1888 as a British colony; part of the independent republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Pop: 54 084 (2000) Tokelauan island group in the South Pacific composed of three atolls, Nukunono, Atafu, and Fakaofo; dependent territory of New Zealand. Pop: 1368 (2012 est). Area: about 11 sq km (4 sq miles) TomboTongaa kingdom occupying an archipelago of more than 150 volcanic and coral islands in the SW Pacific, east of Fiji: inhabited by Polynesians; became a British protectorate in 1900 and gained independence in 1970; a member of the Commonwealth. Official languages: Tongan and English. Religion: Christian majority. Currency: pa'anga. Capital: Nuku'alofa. Pop: 106 322 (2013 est). Area: 750 sq km (290 sq miles) Tortolaan island in the NE Caribbean, in the Leeward Islands group: chief island of the British Virgin Islands. Pop: 23 900 (latest est). Area: 62 sq km (24 sq miles) Tortugaan island in the Caribbean, off the NW coast of Haiti: haunt of pirates in the 17th century. Area: 180 sq km (70 sq miles) Trinidadan island in the West Indies, off the NE coast of Venezuela: colonized by the Spanish in the 17th century and ceded to Britain in 1802; joined with Tobago in 1888 as a British colony; now part of the independent republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Pop: 1 208 282 (2000) Tristan da Cunhaa group of four small volcanic islands in the S Atlantic, about halfway between South Africa and South America: comprises the main island of Tristan and the uninhabited islands of Gough, Inaccessible, and Nightingale; discovered in 1506 by the Portuguese admiral Tristão da Cunha; annexed to Britain in 1816; whole population of Tristan evacuated for two years after the volcanic eruption of 1961. Pop: 264 (2010 est). Area: about 100 sq km (40 sq miles) TrobriandTrukTsushimaa group of five rocky islands between Japan and South Korea, in the Korea Strait: administratively part of Japan; scene of a naval defeat for the Russians (1905) during the Russo-Japanese war. Pop: 41 230 (2000). Area: 698 sq km (269 sq miles) TuamotuTubuaiTurksTutuilathe largest island of American Samoa, in the SW Pacific. Chief town and port: Pago Pago. Pop: 55 876 (2000). Area: 135 sq km (52 sq miles) Tuvalua country in the SW Pacific, comprising a group of nine coral islands: established as a British protectorate in 1892. From 1915 until 1975 the islands formed part of the British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands; achieved full independence in 1978; a member of the Commonwealth (formerly a special member not represented at all meetings, until 2000). Languages: English and Tuvaluan. Religion: Christian majority. Currency: Australian dollar; Tuvalu dollars are also used. Capital: Funafuti. Pop: 10 698 (2013 est). Area: 26 sq km (10 sq miles) UlvaUnimakUpoluan island in the SW central Pacific, in Samoa. Chief town: Apia. Pop: 134 400 (2001). Area: 1114 sq km (430 sq miles) Ushantan island off the NW coast of France, at the tip of Brittany: scene of naval battles in 1778 and 1794 between France and Britain. Area: about 16 sq km (6 sq miles) Vancouvera city in SW Canada, in SW British Columbia: Canada's chief Pacific port, named after Captain George Vancouver: university (1908). Pop: 545 671 (2001) Vanua Levuthe second largest island of Fiji: mountainous. Area: 5535 sq km (2137 sq miles) Vanuatua republic comprising a group of islands in the W Pacific, W of Fiji: a condominium under Anglo-French joint rule from 1906; attained partial autonomy in 1978 and full independence in 1980 as a member of the Commonwealth. Its economy is based chiefly on copra. Official languages: Bislama; French; English. Religion: Christian majority. Currency: vatu. Capital: Vila (on Efate). Pop: 261 565 (2013 est). Area: about 14 760 sq km (5700 sq miles) Vestmannaeyjara group of islands off the S coast of Iceland: they include the island of Surtsey (emerged 1963) and the volcano Helgafell (erupted 1974). Pop: 4027 (2007) Victoria Islanda large island in the Canadian Arctic, in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Area: about 212 000 sq km (82 000 sq miles) VirginVisayan Islandsa group of seven large and several hundred small islands in the central Philippines. Chief islands: Negros and Panay. Pop: 15 528 346 (2000). Area: about 61 000 sq km (23 535 sq miles) Viti Levuthe largest island of Fiji: mountainous. Chief town (and capital of the state): Suva. Pop: 580 000 (latest est). Area: 10 386 sq km (4010 sq miles) VolcanoWalcherenan island in the SW Netherlands, in the Scheldt estuary: administratively part of Zeeland province; suffered severely in World War II, when the dykes were breached, and again in the floods of 1953. Area: 212 sq km (82 sq miles) WalneyWest Indiesan archipelago off Central America, extending over 2400 km (1500 miles) in an arc from the peninsula of Florida to Venezuela, separating the Caribbean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean: consists of the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas; largest island is Cuba. Area: over 235 000 sq km (91 000 sq miles) WesternWightIsle ofisland in the English Channel, off the S coast of Hampshire, constituting a county of England: 147 sq mi (381 sq km); pop. 125,000 WindwardWrangelisland of Russia in the Chukchi Sea: c. 2,000 sq mi (5,180 sq km) Yapa group of four main islands in the W Pacific, in the W Caroline Islands: administratively a district of the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands from 1947; became self-governing in 1979 as part of the Federated States of Micronesia; important Japanese naval base in World War II. Pop: 11 647 (2006 est). Area: 101 sq km (39 sq miles) YouthIsle ofCuban isle south of W Cuba: 849 sq mi (2,199 sq km) Zantean island in the Ionian Sea, off the W coast of Greece: southernmost of the Ionian Islands; traditionally belonged to Ulysses, king of Ithaca. Pop: 38 957 (2001). Area: 402 sq km (155 sq miles) Zanzibaran island in the Indian Ocean, off the E coast of Africa: settled by Persians and Arabs from the 7th century onwards; became a flourishing trading centre for slaves, ivory, and cloves; made a British protectorate in 1890, becoming independent within the Commonwealth in 1963 and a republic in 1964; joined with Tanganyika in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania. Pop: 622 459 (2002) ▷ See island
Copyright © 2016 by HarperCollins Publishers. All rights reserved.
Word List of Islands and island groups from the Collins English Word Lists